Vox Clamantis

To the Editor,

While Lulu Chang highlighted an important issue in her recent column about education in the Upper Valley (“Inequity in Our Backyard,” April 24), her broad generalizations about school quality with respect to socioeconomics missed the mark in some significant ways. She took a complicated educational issue and boiled it down to an unhelpful stereotype based on just a few tutoring sessions at Mascoma Valley Regional High School. While this may have been the easiest way to make her point, it does little to move the conversation about this frequently discussed issue forward in helpful ways.

Inequity in public education is one of the many issues we explore at the Tucker Foundation through our local volunteer programs. We work with a variety of local school districts to develop enrichment activities for their students while providing learning and leadership opportunities for Dartmouth student volunteers. Through these reciprocal relationships in which we are all learners, the Tucker Foundation hopes that Dartmouth volunteers come away with a nuanced understanding of the communities in which they serve, focusing on both the gifts and the challenges. It is through new understandings that we can work together to make change.

Instead of resorting to stereotypes, teacher blaming and unhelpful comparisons, Chang’s column should have looked more broadly at successful public school innovation nationally and highlighted programs that are making a difference.

Helen Damon-MooreDirector of Service and Education, Tucker Foundation

Daily Debriefing

The Upper Valley celebrated spring and social activism with May Day festivities held on the Lebanon Green and hosted by Occupy Upper Valley on Tuesday, according to the organization’s website. The event featured musical performances by Kerry Rose, The Fogey Mountain Boys and The Green Room and speeches by various members of the community. Environmentalist and author Gus Speth, representative of the Postal Worker’s Union Patty Dewey and head of the Mascoma Valley Regional High School teacher’s union Dave Shinnlinger all spoke at the gathering. Other events included a performance around the traditional maypole, cooperative games, face painting, a puppet show and a mass “breathe-in.” Local living organizations set up booths that allow attendees to explore opportunities for social change in the community, and the event concluded with an Occupy General Assembly. Although Occupy Dartmouth members did not attend the Lebanon celebration, they commemorated May Day with a two-hour march around campus, reciting songs, chanting and reading poem, according to Occupy Dartmouth founder Nathan Gusdorf ’12.

Frank Wu, chancellor and dean of the University of Cali-fornia Hastings College of the Law, decided to decrease the number of students accepted to the law school by 20 percent after determining that the number of law schools and students in the United States is too high, Inside Higher Education reported Tuesday. As a result of the change, several staff positions will be eliminated, although no faculty members will lose their jobs. Applications to law schools fell by approximately 7 percent at Hastings last year and by 15 percent across the country. Wu said that the legal education system follows an antiquated model with a long-established role as a “refuge for the bright liberal arts student” unsure what path to pursue following graduation, according to Inside Higher Ed. Wu said he believes that law schools either fail to fill the incoming class completely, creating a budget deficit, or accept students who should not be in law school. Hastings joins three other law schools that have announced their intention to decrease the size of incoming classes, Inside Higher Ed reported.

Leslie Center conference considers role of child studies

Bringing together leaders in the field of child studies, the Leslie Center for the Humanities in conjunction with the women and gender studies program hosted a conference Tuesday to discuss the growing discipline through a humanities-based lens. The day-long program, “Reimagining the Child and the Place of Child Studies in the Academy,” intended to shift the focus of child studies to the humanities from predominantly scientific approaches and draw attention to related public policy, according to conference organizer and Leslie Center Director Colleen Boggs.

Morning sessions focused on scholarly work in child studies, including lectures by professors currently “defining the field,” such as Amherst College English professor Karen Sanchez-Eppler, University of Utah English professor Kathryn Stockton and University of Massachusetts, Amherst women, gender and sexuality studies professor Laura Briggs. Afternoon sessions focused on modern-day applications of academic theories and highlighted the book “A History of Four Voices: Multigenerational Dialogues on the Meaning of Childhood and Free to Be … You and Me,” co-edited by Leslie Center fellow Laura Lovett and Barnard College professor Lori Rotskoff.

“Free to Be … You and Me” was an initiative in the early 1970s intended to change children’s attitudes about gender relations through a television program, book and music album. As the “Free to Be” book nears its 40th anniversary of publication, Lovett and Rotskoff examined the implications of the work through personal reflections by those involved in its popularization. Lovett and Rotskoff’s book will be released in November.

Boggs said she recognized the scale of the impact of “Free to Be” when she attended a child’s birthday party and mentioned the conference, which included a screening of clips from the TV show. Adults present at the party recalled songs from the program and album from their own childhoods, she said.

“It felt like I had turned into this magnet,” she said. “Everyone came into this conversation and started talking about Free to Be’ and the impact it had had on their lives. It really galvanized a conversation about children and child-rearing.”

Boggs and Lovett said the conference is particularly timely as Dartmouth nears the 40th anniversary of becoming coeducational.

“When Dartmouth went coed, and it was the last Ivy to go coed, the issue of whether or not women had the right to a terrific education was very much in the framework of it,” Lovett said. “[Free to Be’] really was a turning point in the way we could think about women’s access to education and workplace equality.”

The conference began with Sanchez-Eppler’s lecture, “In the Archives of Childhood,” which addressed the connection between archival research and child studies.

Sanchez-Eppler said that both child studies and archival research are elusive, but archiving in conjunction with the discipline of child studies can unearth the “child’s voice and aspiration.”

To demonstrate the obstacles facing archival work and the information that can be gleaned from the process, Sanchez-Eppler presented her analysis of a child’s drawing that reads, “To my dear schoolteacher,” drawn in 1856. The voice of the child author is most apparent in minutiae such as spelling errors and handwriting.

“The real discoveries of archival work lie in the most everyday findings of the past,” she said.

Following the screening of “Free to Be,” a panel of six activists, scholars and cultural workers responded to clips and engaged 20 audience members, including four children, in dialogue that tackled issues like incarceration, heteronormativity, racism, classism and health care.

Rotskoff said that rewatching the film led her to believe that society has in some ways regressed in gender relations. Whereas newborns in the clips are taken home from the hospital clothes in yellow, chosen for its gender neutrality, toys and children’s products today are “outrageously gendered” through the pink-blue divide, she said.

A contemporary version of “Free to Be” would have to more closely address issues of racism and classism in addition to sexism, according to panelist and children’s welfare advocate Dorothy Pitman Hughes, who said these three problems together prevent America “from being beautiful.”

Hughes’ daughter, who had a non-speaking role in “Free to Be,” wondered if producers prevented her from asking questions because she is African-American, Hughes said.

Hanover resident Laurie Greenberg said she felt a particular connection when watching “Free to Be” because, when it was released, her daughter was two years old. She said she remembered many details and songs but was now struck by a sense of racism, which was less evident in the 1970s.

Greenberg said she worries that society may be “going back into the dark ages” with respect to political issues like health insurance coverage of birth control. The issues raised at the conference are particularly important to her as a grandmother, she said.

“[My daughter] has a real responsibility here with children to raise them in a different society, to bring them different opportunities where they can really be free to be who they want to be and feel safe about that,” Greenberg said.

Sean Gupta ’15, who attended two sessions of the conference as part of a women and gender studies course called “Tears, Love, Happiness: Feminine Territories, Feminist Readings,” said he benefitted from the lectures despite their focus on children, a field of study not immediately relevant to most Dartmouth students.

“I think the greatest take-away is that America still has a lot of social issues to overcome, especially when it comes to sexual equality,” he said. “But I think that the opposition to equality is becoming more and more of a minority.”

Nation must shift to universal health care, Johnson says

Rates of U.S. medical spending are likely to result in a financial crisis, ABC News' former medical editor Tim Johnson said in a Tuesday lecture.

ABC News’ former medical editor Tim Johnson predicted a “pessimistic” future for the United States health care industry, including a potential financial crisis due to rising medical costs, during his Tuesday lecture, “The Truth About Getting Sick in America.” Outlining the primary points of his recent book of the same title in Filene Auditorium, Johnson offered broad ideas for health care reform, including the prospect of a universal health care program.

Compared to Canada, the United States spends almost twice as much on health care services, even though the overall situation is similar to other developed nation’s health outcomes, Johnson said.

The root of the American health care problem lies in the widespread desire among consumers for the newest, most advanced health care without wanting to pay for it.

“[Insurance companies] are caught between a rock and a hard place,” Johnson said, describing the balance they must strike between the demands of providers and doctors who want to be paid more and consumers who want to pay less for health care.

Johnson compared the health care industry to the airline industry, citing the heavy involvement of the federal government within the airline industry as the reason for the relative safety of American airlines. He said he believes that the health care industry would benefit from a similar level of federal involvement in lieu of the system currently in place, which allows state government to establish their own health care legislation.

“Because we don’t have that kind of regulation in the health care business, the Institute of Medicine estimates that about 100,000 people die of medical errors every year in this country,” Johnson said. “These deaths happen one by one, behind closed doors and pulled curtains, and it’s because we leave it up to every state.”

Although the health care system needs major reforms, Johnson is not confident in the government’s ability to solve the problem, he said.

“If we are going to have a heath care reform, we are going to have to take it out of the hands of the politicians,” he said. “They are never going to be able to deal with health care unless they cede decision-making power to a national board of experts and patients.”

While a universal health care system would cut jobs in the short term, it is necessary for the system’s reform, he said. Individuals currently working in health care could be retrained to fill other positions, and effectively recognizing ways to alter spending practices would minimize negative effects for patients and employees, he said.

“If a third of what we spend is unnecessary, and we can figure out how to identify that and not pay for it and only pay for things that are truly beneficial, we probably wouldn’t have to make that many hard choices,” he said.

As it stands, the future of health care will likely be characterized by increasing medical costs that will eventually create a financial crisis, Johnson said.

“The medical-industrial complex is so embedded in our culture that the costs are going to keep going up, no matter what we do, and we will reach a crisis point a financial crisis when the country faces bankruptcy when it can’t sell its bonds on an international market,” he said.

Many faculty members and members of the medical community attended Johnson’s lecture, which was the annual John P. McGovern Lecture series sponsored by the C. Everett Koop Institute at the Geisel School of Medicine. The lecture series aims to draw doctors from various backgrounds to discuss their work and its social context.

“We’ve tried to branch out as much as possible,” Jennifer Liu ’12, an administrative intern and one of the main organizers of the lecture, said.

Joseph O’Donnell, a senior scholar at the Koop Institute and a professor at the Geisel School, said he has been working to capitalize on former Surgeon General C. Everett Koop’s connections to prominent medical experts to inspire dialogue on campus.

“Within Dr. Koop’s circle of friends are all these great people,” he said. “The thing I’ve been trying to do is to have them come up here and visit with him and give a lecture.”

While several students in attendance said they enjoyed the lecture, others said the content was unexpected.

“I thought he was going to dive more into the issues specifically, but it turned out to be more topics based on his book,” John Hong ’14 said. “I feel like I have to read his book now to fully know what he was talking about.”

Israel and Palestine Week’s events aim to spur dialogue

The first event of its kind, Dartmouth’s Israel and Palestine Week, sponsored by the Dartmouth Avi Schaefer Delegation, seeks to promote dialogue and understanding between both sides of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict by showcasing the human element of the issue through films, comedy, poetry and cultural events, according to delegation members. Israel and Palestine Week began on Monday and will conclude on Friday.

Ala’ Alrababa’h ’14, Maryam Zafer ’12, Asher Mayerson ’15 and Ittai Eres ’14, who comprise the Avi Schaefer Delegation, began planning this week’s programming after attending a Student Leadership Colloquium at Brown University in late February. The colloquium, “Rethinking Approaches to the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict on North American College Campuses,” was sponsored by the Avi Schaefer Fund and brought together student representatives from Ivy League institutions to consider the ways in which student groups address the conflict, according to Zafer.

A Brown student and former Israeli soldier who was killed by a drunk driver and whose parents started the fund to continue his legacy, Avi Schaefer was doing “groundbreaking” work with a Palestinian friend at the university by fostering conversation about the conflict, Eres said.

The first three days of Israel and Palestine Week feature film screenings, with one from an Israeli perspective, one from a Palestinian perspective and one from a joint point of view. A comedy performance will take place on Thursday, and Friday’s events will feature a poetry reading, as both comedy and poetry have a “rich historical tradition in the region,” according to Zafer.

“People are pretty apathetic on this campus toward a lot of things, but specifically the Israeli-Palestinian conflict, so we wanted to bring awareness to it and reveal the different narratives,” Mayerson said.

By showing films, the members of the delegation hope that attendees will better understand the human and narrative aspect of the conflict, which “really does boil down to personal stories,” Mayerson said.

Rather than choosing politically charged films and topics, the event coordinators designed events that reveal different aspects of culture. Comedy, poetry and music encourage people to “have to grasp it on an individual, personal level and then also understand the culture as a whole,” Mayerson said.

The delegation hopes to “build momentum” as the week progresses, following a Monday event that was attended by 17 people, according to Mayerson.

While the Dartmouth Avi Schaefer Delegation is not a standing or sustained group on campus, its four members attended the colloquium and represent a range of campus interests. Alrababa’h and Zafer are co-presidents of Students for Justice in Palestine, Mayerson is the vice president of religious affairs and education of Hillel and Eres is the Hillel Israel affairs coordinator. At Brown’s colloquium, the members discussed issues including the refugee situation and East Jerusalem, putting aside contrasting ideas of what Israelis call Independence Day but Palestinians refer to as “the catastrophe” in order to focus on commemorating lives lost and understanding the different perspectives, Mayerson said.

“If we did that at eight Ivy League schools at the same time on the same day, that’s really powerful institutionally in America,” he said.

While there are direct conflicts between Israeli and Palestinian narratives and certain “key words” can be used to anger either side, it is possible to set aside these differences to promote understanding, Eres said. Eres said he did not know Zafer or Mayerson before the initial colloquium and worried that they would have beliefs that diverged from his own, but ultimately they found a basis for agreement.

The two sides of the conflict may never fully agree due to their cultural heritage and identity, but an open dialogue allows both sides to be heard and understood, Eres said.

Events such as Israel and Palestine Week that strive to promote dialogue rather than focus on promoting a specific group’s ideas or cause have not previously taken place at the College, according to Zafer.

The four members of the delegation planned the week’s events without the initial participation of other campus groups because of difficulty securing co-sponsorship, Mayerson said.

Groups like Dartmouth Students for Israel and Students for Justice in Palestine may feel uncomfortable legitimizing one another’s mission statements by co-sponsoring events, he said.

Hillel International also has many rules for co-sponsorship, even though on an individual level members are open to dialogue, Mayerson said.

The week’s events expand upon other efforts undertaken at Ivy League institutions, including an Israeli-Palestinian film festival at Brown, according to Mayerson. The delegation is also sponsoring a “Why I Care” poster campaign this week, which explores the reasons individuals care about the Israeli-Palestinian conflict and intends to generate interest among others, Mayerson said. Israel and Palestine Week’s message is targeted at the entire community, rather than simply those who might have a personal stake in the conflict, as the conflict relates to a wide variety of social and political issues, he said.

Shoshona Silverstein ’15, a member of J Street U, said Israel and Palestine Week has the potential to create positive effects, particularly given that films can offer a “personal story rather than statistics.”

“Over the past two nights, I’ve come to realize that this is an issue that should be a priority,” she said.

Adam Schneider ’15, vice president of Dartmouth Students for Israel, said he supports the week’s events and the need to “promote cultural understanding,” even though the organization could not agree to co-sponsorship due to “internal concerns.”

While it is important for students on campus to understand the conflict and become engaged, however, it is also vital to remember that the final decision for peace lies with the Israelis and the Palestinians themselves, Schneider said.

NH hospitals call for Medicaid intervention

Trustees of 10 New Hampshire hospitals, including the Dartmouth-Hitchcock health care system, claim that the state violated Medicare law by reallocating $130 million in federal Medicaid reimbursement funding to balance the state budget without analyzing the new plan’s impact on access to care for Medicaid patients. In an April 26 letter to Cindy Mann, deputy administrator of the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services, 165 trustees requested federal intervention in halting the state plan, which they said inhibits the quality and accessibility of health care services at their centers.

The request for federal intervention represents the hospitals’ follow-up effort to a lawsuit filed last year against Nicholas Toumpas, state commissioner of the Department of Health and Human Services, according to Vice President of Government Relations at Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center Frank McDougall. By pursuing both remediation and justice through the federal courts, the trustees hope to compel the state to alter its funding plan, he said.

“The New Hampshire program has been pushed past the breaking point, and federal intervention is now necessary to stop any further deterioration of the Medicaid delivery system,” the trustees wrote in the letter.

State Medicaid Director Katie Dunn said that the state is “aware” of the hospitals’ concern but said they have “mischaracterized” the funding plan. New Hampshire has been working with the national Center for Medicaid Services over the past “eight or nine weeks” to document access to care measurements within the state, she said.

“We’re not able to concur with the trustees’ statement that the New Hampshire Medicaid system is broken,” she said.

New Hampshire ranks 51st in Medicaid reimbursement rates among the country’s states and territories, according to McDougall, who said that the state has been “aggressive” in reducing rates since 2008. The state ranks near the top of the list in per capita Medicaid spending, Dunn said.

DHMC treated 43,000 Medicaid patients at a cost of approximately $90 million in 2011, according to McDougall. The hospital was reimbursed for $28 million by the state, a “significantly lower” percentage than in other state policies, he said.

To compensate for the increase in cost, the hospital laid off five percent of its employees, increased its charges to commercial insurance providers and is currently considering eliminating some of its children’s health specialists, McDougall said.

The cut in reimbursements is aggravated by a hospital “bed tax,” imposed last year, which cost the hospital an additional $43 million, he said.

Other providers, such as Lakes Region General Hospital, Cheshire Medical Center and Southern New Hampshire Medical Center, have been forced to suspend regular care for Medicaid patients or discharge patients, he said.

“We have been forced to take actions we abhor in response to the state’s fiscal irresponsibility,” the trustees said in the letter, stating that the state plan is an attempt to shift New Hampshire’s financial burden onto its hospitals.

The state expects hospitals to absorb the cost increases by maximizing efficiency of operations, according to Dunn. The hospitals that did not join in the suit or sign the letter have found alternative ways of maintaining their business, she said.

The decision to reduce care ultimately lies with the hospital, and Medicare patients who face reduced or eliminated care can request state assistance in locating an alternative provider, she said.

“If a hospital’s primary care practice no longer wishes to provide that care, we have had no problem in finding other primary care providers who would be willing to take on new Medicaid patients,” she said.

DHMC often acts as a “safety net” for patients who cannot afford to pay for care at other hospitals, but the trustees are concerned that maintaining the same level of care is “unsustainable,” McDougall said.

“You can’t sustain losses of this magnitude regardless of your size and still succeed in mission you stand for,” he said. “We want to treat everyone who comes in the door. We don’t ask about your ability to pay.”

McDougall said that the federal government could take action by refusing to approve state waivers or planned amendments or by withholding Medicare funding from the state.

Dunn said she does not expect the federal government to exercise those options.

“That would be a drastic step to put individual health care and in some cases lives at stake,” she said.

DOC announces leaders for 2012 First-Year Trips

The Dartmouth Outing Club selected 286 students to be First-Year Trips leaders this year out of a pool of 630 applicants, according to Trips director Emily Mason-Osann ’11 Th ’12. Of the 150 applicants for Croos the five groups of students who assist with the execution of Trips 59 students received positions.

Selected leaders were notified via email on Tuesday evening, and their specific Trips assignments were posted to the DOC’s website. The Trips directorate is currently finalizing training schedules for those accepted, Mason-Osann said.

There will be 14 or 15 trips offered per section this year over 10 sections total, according to assistant Trips director Farzeen Mahmud ’12. Altogether, there will be 144 trips offered, with only minor changes compared to previous years.

The DOC has added a Hiking 1 trip that will explore areas closer to campus, according to Mason-Osann. Leaders of the new trip will guide their groups to Storrs Pond through Pine Park, camping in the Oak Hill area, and will explore the regions around Balch Hill and Oak Hill.

More sections of whitewater kayaking trips will also be offered, Mason-Osann said.

The Trips directorate seeks a body of trip leaders and Croo members who reflect the diversity present within the campus community, which features a wide variety of backgrounds and interests, according to Mason-Osann.

“We are looking to form a group of leaders and Croo members that can make what we call a sustainable welcome,’ creating a sense of community that begins during Trips but also exists throughout students’ time at Dartmouth,” Mason-Osann said. “We want leaders who are interested in forming lasting relationships with the freshmen and that can be resources for them throughout their time as students.”

Applicants must consider their own Dartmouth experiences and their roles in the community as part of the application process, according to Mahmud.

“By inviting applicants to reflect on this, we set up a system wherein all these experiences drove our leadership selection and helped us to craft a team for this year,” she said.

The Trips directorate conducts a blind admissions process, Mahmud said. After potential leaders submitted their applications, a reader reviews the application without access to the student’s identifying information such as name, class year, gender or section availability.

The training process for accepted trip leaders and Croo members will undergo changes this year, including participation in trips organized by DOC “sub-clubs,” such as Cabin and Trail, according to Mason-Osann. In addition to lessons in good decision-making and leadership, operating in the wilderness and methods to create “fun and successful” trips, the additional training components will increase leaders’ familiarity with their activity and “inspire more confidence in the leaders,” she said.

Rebecca Schneyer ’13 said she valued her role as a hiking trip leader last year, which allowed her to serve as a resource for incoming students.

“I enjoyed seeing my group go through what I went through as a freshman from the perspective of an upperclassman,” she said. “For me, being a trip leader was a great way to connect with the incoming class. Dartmouth is really all about community, and it’s so important to connect with other students across years.”

Brett Szalapski ’15, who will lead a canoeing trip in the fall, said Trips was a formative part of his own first-year experience.

“I remember my trip leaders as being really cool and chill about everything,” Szalapski said. “They were both so fun, and I really want to show the freshmen how welcoming and accessible the Dartmouth community is. I also want them to look back on Trips favorably and be motivated to apply to be trip leaders themselves come sophomore year.”

Students face six-hour Blitz system lockout

Correction appended

Tuesday’s six-hour lockout from access to Microsoft Online Services, which lasted from roughly 8 a.m. to 2:30 p.m., was caused by Microsoft’s failure to accept a web certificate that had expired and was automatically updated, according to Vice President for Information Technology Ellen Waite-Franzen. The failure sparked both anger and ambivalence among students, some of whom had no access to their email for the duration of the outage and some of whom were relatively unaffected. The problem occurred when the certificate that authorized the College to access Blitz expired and was not immediately updated, preventing users from successfully logging into the system, Waite-Franzen said.

The issues causing the system’s inaccessibility are still under review, and members of the Information Technology department will continue the investigation on Wednesday, according to Waite-Franzen.

“There are really two things that went wrong here,” Waite-Franzen said. “Microsoft wasn’t as fast as it should have been, and the certificates we use usually have one to two to three years on them, so there is a biannual update that must have been overlooked.”

Many students said that the server malfunction inhibited their daily tasks, particularly since it barred access to the entire system rather than just the email function.

“I just think that it is really inconvenient,” Stacey Derosier ’12 said. “My Blitz isn’t forwarded to any other form of account, so I’m literally a sitting duck waiting for computer services to figure their mess out.”

Waite-Franzen said that the College maintains an active directory that shares a “trusted relationship” with Microsoft. If the directory is not trusted which occurred when the certificate expired Microsoft will prevent users from logging in, she said.

While a new certificate was on the directory when the old one expired, Microsoft still refused to reconnect to Dartmouth, she said.

“We’re still doing the technical review of this, so a lot of this might be an overview and not an in-depth technical review yet,” she said.

Students who were connected before 8 a.m. Tuesday morning remained connected, but anyone who attempted to connect after that time was denied access. It soon appeared that Microsoft was denying Dartmouth’s connection to its mail services, and representatives from the Information Technology department notified Microsoft as soon as they were made aware of the problem, Waite-Franzen said.

“The entire process got escalated through Microsoft, but on the Microsoft side escalation didn’t go as fast as it should have,” she said. “Working with Microsoft gives us a remediation plan, but it was hours before we got to an engineer. It ended up being a pretty complex problem that went through three elevations before they were able to uncover the fact that it was the certificate on the server.”

The Information Technology department and Microsoft team are both working on a new escalation process that should be put into place within a couple of days, Waite-Franzen said.

“It is a complete anomaly that this happened,” Waite-Frazen said. “This is a new service for us, and we are still learning about it, but this is not something we would have ever expected to happen.”

Students who forward their Blitz to Google’s Gmail system or other email providers were relatively unaffected by the malfunction, as the problem involved accessing Outlook rather than receiving mail.

“I’m not saying the school should have chosen Gmail or the school shouldn’t have chosen Gmail,” Hacker Club president Parker Phinney ’12 said. “I’m just saying I forward my Blitz to Gmail, and I experienced no outage today. You can’t explain that.”

Those students who do not forward their mail to other providers were more directly affected by the malfunction, which lasted until 2:30 p.m. for most servers.

“The whole situation was a complete mess,” McKenzie Bennett ’13 said. “I had a paper due today and it definitely hampered my ability to turn it in.”

Emi Weed ’13 said she believes the administration’s decision to implement the Microsoft system was a result of cost minimization rather than considering what would work best for the school and students.

“This [outage], coupled with the administration’s utter inability to make Microsoft’s Lync a thing, shows how far we have to go before we can even approach what we would have had with a Google Mail client,” Weed said.

**The original version of this article was updated to provide clarifications given by the Information Technology department.*