Carol Folt was appointed interim president following College President Jim Yong Kim's election to the World Bank.

The Board of Trustees appointed College Provost Carol Folt as Dartmouth’s interim president following the Monday selection of College President Jim Yong Kim as head of the World Bank, according to a College press release. Kim will step down on June 30 after less than three years in office, the second shortest presidential tenure in College history. Folt will begin work as interim president on July 1.

Folt, who is Dartmouth’s chief academic officer and the second highest ranking College administrator, assumed the role of provost in 2009 after three years of serving as dean of the faculty. Her appointment marks the first time a woman has held the College’s top leadership position. Folt told the Board of Trustees that she will not seek the permanent presidency.

“We have an exciting year ahead of us, with much work to be done, and are fortunate that Provost Folt has agreed to serve Dartmouth as interim president,” Chairman of the Board of Trustees Stephen Mandel ’78 said in the release. “She will provide leadership to all parts of our campus and continue to lead the strategic planning process, which is a top priority for the Board. The trustees all agree that Dartmouth will thrive under Carol’s leadership through this important transitional period.”

Beginning in 2010, Folt has worked with Kim to lead the College’s strategic planning process, which is aimed at supporting faculty, strengthening the College’s curriculum and improving student education following significant budget cuts and administrative restructuring.

As interim president, she will continue to work with faculty and the Board to maintain these goals, according to the release. The Strategic Planning Steering Committee, of which Folt and Kim are co-chairs, aims to approve all final recommendations from seven strategic planning working groups by December 2012, those involved in the process previously told The Dartmouth.

Folt and Chief Financial Officer Steven Kadish led Dartmouth’s efforts to resolve the College’s $100-million budget gap under Kim’s direction, according to the release.

Folt replaced former Provost Barry Scherr, one of several high-level administrators to leave the College in 2009, including former Dean of the College Tom Crady, former Dean of Undergraduate Students Rovana Popoff and former Dean of First-Year Students Gail Zimmerman.

Folt has served as a senior administrator since 2001, when she was named dean of graduate studies. In 2004, she was appointed dean of the faculty of arts and sciences and in 2006 became dean of the faculty. She began teaching at the College in 1983.

Folt said she is “honored” to lead the College as it begins the search for a new president.

“I have had a wonderful opportunity to work closely with President Kim to build on Dartmouth’s traditional strengths and develop new initiatives during his very dynamic presidency,” she said in the release. “I look forward to working closely with all members of the Dartmouth community to maintain the vitality of our campus, strengthen existing and new initiatives and sharpen priorities.”

Folt’s appointment comes on the heels of a series of resignations of female administrators, primarily in the Office of Pluralism and Leadership. In March, Nora Yasumura resigned from her post as assistant dean and advisor to Asian and Asian-American students. Former advisor to black students Samantha Ivery, Assistant Dean of Undergraduate Students Colleen Larimore ’85 and former Acting Dean of the College Sylvia Spears all resigned last winter.

Kim applauded the Board’s appointment of Folt as interim president.

“[Folt’s] sure leadership and intimate knowledge of the College make her an outstanding choice for interim president,” Kim said. “She is committed to strengthening Dartmouth’s mission of education and research in order to prepare students and future generations of students for a rapidly changing world.”

Folt’s tenure as dean of the faculty received some criticism from prominent professors, who cited incompatibility with her administration as the reason for their departure. Jon Appleton, a former music professor at Dartmouth, previously told The Dartmouth that Folt was an “ineffective” administrator and that she contributed to a decline in the intellectual atmosphere at the College.

Appleton called Folt a “puppet” whose sole interest was her “career in administration.”

Biology professor Roger Sloboda, however, lauded Folt’s achievements in her six years as dean of the faculty in a previous interview with The Dartmouth.

“She was a very strong proponent of strong teaching and research, always looking out for faculty salaries and benefits,” he said. “She was a good representative of the faculty in discussion with administration. She’s not the kind of person to advertise everything she’s doing and brag about it.”

An expert on metal toxicity, Folt has explored the effects of mercury and arsenic on human health, salmon restoration and global climate change. In 2010, Folt was named to the American Association for the Advancement of Science.

Folt graduated with a bachelor’s degree in aquatic biology and a master’s degree in biology from the University of California, Santa Barbara. She received a PhD from the University of California, Davis.

Mandel also commended Kim on his appointment to the World Bank presidency in the release.

“The Trustees congratulate President Kim on the tremendous honor of being chosen as president of the World Bank, one of the most critical institutions fighting poverty in the world,” Mandel said. “We have immense respect for Jim as a leader and human being, and are proud of his contributions at Dartmouth and in the world.”

The Board of Trustees will announce the chair of the presidential search committee that will select the College’s 18th president on Thursday, according to the press release.

Vann Island

Before I get to this week’s topic, I have to take a second to brag about my hometown sports teams. There is no doubt that April is an incredible time for everyone who loves sports, with the Stanley Cup playoffs, the beginning of the MLB season, the NBA playoffs and the NFL Draft on the horizon. That said, it’s an especially sweet time to be a Los Angeles sports fan.

The Kings are leading the number-one seeded Vancouver Canucks three games to none in the first round of the Stanley Cup playoffs, the Dodgers opened the 2012 season an MLB-best record of 9-1 and the Lakers and Clippers are getting hot at the right time both have recent win streaks (four games for the Lakers and three for the Clippers).

So when my coaches asked me, “Where would I rather be?” last Friday night as I plowed my face into the turf in the midst of a set of up-downs, I thought to myself, “Murphy’s, drinking a beer and watching the Kings, Dodgers and Lakers taking care of business.” Smartly, I kept this desire to myself. For some reason, the Dartmouth football coaching staff prefers the response of, “Nowhere!” Weird, right?

Even though my last Friday night wasn’t quite like Katy Perry’s, it did signify something equally as crazy: the realization that this is my last spring football season. Yes, spring ball “officially” started on Tuesday, but it really begins to sink in when the team is grinding away on the weekends. I will never forget the response I overheard last year from a former teammate of mine, Eddie Smith ’12, when a friend in line at the Hop asked him why we have practices on Saturdays when the season is so far away. Without hesitation, Eddie emphatically stated, “It’s spring ball!”

Due to the D-Plan, upperclassmen are given the unique opportunity during Winter term to take some time away from the football program. We usually take that time to study abroad or seek out an internship. While it’s nice to escape those notorious Hanover winters, especially for those of us originally from warmer climates, it also means the team is not all together.

As a result, Dartmouth is, without question, a step behind the rest of the Ivy League when the football team returns to campus as a whole for Spring term not in terms of athleticism, speed or strength, but rather in team cohesion, identity and togetherness. It is this void that makes spring ball for the Big Green that much more important. It is a time where we have to re-acclimate ourselves to the program, our teammates and the coaching staff.

And nothing defines re-acclimation quite like mat drills the prelude to spring ball, or as I like to call it, football purgatory. Basically, mat drills are non-stop agility drills with cones, tires and ropes where only the mentally strong survive. A lot of football experts equate mat drills to the toughest physical test a player will endure all season, but I like to think mat drills represent the biggest mental test a team will go through all season. Supposedly, the drills are designed for a player to want to give in, raise the white flag and then chuck up the deuce, meaning, “Hey coach, I’m out of here.” But in practice, mat drills show you how tough a player really is. They show that player that he can push himself past his perceived limits and, most importantly, they build team chemistry and camaraderie.

The true beauty of spring ball lies in the notion of a rebirth for the team: a fresh start. It’s a time when last year’s season is relegated to the history books and the excitement of looking forward to a new season takes over. Every team thinks that it is their year that the only possible outcome is an Ivy League title. Every player thinks that this is his year, no matter how low he is on the depth chart. And with the seniors gone, there is a void in which new leaders can and must emerge.

With all the exciting things that are happening in the world of sports, I feel the unique joy of spring ball is lost on many players. So I am using this platform to remind you that Bobby Petrino’s motorcycle mischief at the University of Arkansas is not the only thing that is currently happening in college football.

This is that rare time in Hanover where the weather is starting to heat up, and it becomes virtually impossible to withstand the heat in your dorm room. Actually, that would make for a good mat drill station. But with abundant sunshine, there’s no reason not to get on the Green and toss the old pigskin around with your friends, because football is definitely back. It’s time to get into the 12S mindset, and to steal a question from my coaches playbook: “Where would you rather be?”

Rugby soundly defeats Ivy foes

The men's rugby team will host a regional in the Emirates Airline USA Rugby Men's D I-AA tournament.

The Dartmouth men’s rugby team swept Harvard University and Princeton University over the weekend, cementing its place at the top of the Ivy League. The team defeated Harvard, 51-7, before thoroughly demolishing the Tigers, 50-3. Both games were played at Princeton. With the two wins, Dartmouth clinched the Ivy League’s berth into the Division I-AA playoffs, collegiate rugby’s championship tournament.

On Saturday, the Big Green got off to a slow start against the Crimson but powered through to secure a big win.

“It was a lot of really simple stuff like dropping the ball,” co-captain Paul Jarvis ’12 said. “It was really frustrating to see that sloppiness.”

Madison Hughes ’15 put the Big Green on the board with a try that followed several close calls for the Big Green. Dylan Jones ’14 also added a try, and after Hughes hit the conversion, the Big Green had a 12-0 lead. Harvard cut the Dartmouth lead to 12-7 with a converted try, but from there the Dartmouth defense buckled down and kept the Crimson off the scoreboard for the remainder of the contest.

“We knew that Harvard would come out and throw a lot at us, but after the first 10 minutes or so, it settled down and things became more cohesive,” Jarvis said.

Jarvis was determined not to let the Crimson take the game, and the captain embarked on a journey that would take him through several tackles and culminate in a successful try to increase the Dartmouth lead to 12. As time was winding down in the first half, Jarvis added another try to make the score 24-7.

Jarvis said that the long bus ride and struggles of being on the road might have contributed to Dartmouth’s slow start against Harvard.

Co-captain Derek Fish ’12 added that the team’s early struggles also might have come from the familiarity of playing the same teams.

“We see these teams a lot, so they know what’s coming from us,” Fish said.

The Big Green kept its foot on the gas in the second half, shutting out the Crimson, 27-0, to bring home the win. Lawrence Anfo-Whyte ’13 carried the standard in the charge, scoring twice on mammoth runs from over 40 meters out, weaving his way through defenders up and down the pitch. Hughes converted the first of these tries but failed to convert the second.

Jarvis iced the game with his hat trick, and the Big Green closed it out for a 51-7 win and moved on to face the Tigers on Sunday.

“The way we win these games is by taking away what they have and controlling the territory and pressure of the game,” Jarvis said.

The Big Green came out strong against the Tigers and dictated play from the beginning. Mike McDavid ’15 scored a try within a minute of the start of the game, and Jarvis scored next, quickly bringing the score to 10-0.

The Tigers remained tough, attempting to stifle every Big Green advance, and they were successful in stopping many rushes. The hosts got on the board with a penalty kick to make it 10-3, but the Big Green broke through the Tigers’ stingy defense and shattered any momentum that Princeton had built with a strong final few minutes of the first half.

Nate Brakeley ’13 picked up a turnover and rushed in for the successful try just a few minutes later. Hughes pitched in a successful try and conversion, capping a big weekend for the freshman.

The second half was more of the same for the Big Green, which went undefeated in Ivy League regular season play last fall. Fish, Jarvis, Kevin Clark ’14 and Ryan Milligan ’12 all scored tries wto provide the final 50-3 margin.

The national tournament consists of 16 teams, 13 of which won their respective conference titles. The Big Green is the only team from the Ancient Eight to make the tournament.

Dartmouth’s opponent in the round of 16 is Shippensburg University, which emerged victorious from the Eastern Pennsylvania League. Stony Brook University, which upset St. Bonaventure University, Division I-AA’s top regular-season team, to win the Empire League crown and Northeastern University, champions of the East Coast Rugby Conference, round out the Big Green’s four-team regional, which will be played in Hanover April 28-29.

“We don’t see these teams that often,” Fish said. “It’s one-and-done from here out, and we’re playing all conference champion teams. We can’t look at what they’ve done, but we need to just play our game of territory and ball control.”

If the Big Green emerges victorious from the Hanover regional, the team would advance to the final four, which will be held in Sandy, Utah May 18-19.

Mountainfilm short film festival screened at Spaulding

Telluride, Colo. is home to one of the world’s most prestigious film festivals. The well-known Telluride Film Festival tends to overshadow the other festivals held in Telluride, including the Mountainfilm Festival, which primarily spotlights films featuring the outdoors and extreme sports. The festival’s traveling program, “Mountainfilm on Tour,” made a stop last Friday at Spaulding Auditorium at the Hopkins Center with a program hosted by Mountainfilm executive director Peter Kenworthy ’77.

Mountainfilm was founded in 1979 to focus primarily on the adventurous spirit. Held every Memorial Day weekend in Telluride, the festival has grown more and more popular over the years, according to the festival’s website. Kenworthy moved to Telluride in 1979, and among the many festivals hosted there, the Mountainfilm Festival stood out in particular, he said.

“It was in a town where there are quite a few festivals throughout the summer,” Kenworthy said. “I loved the people that it brought together. I loved the films they were very content rich and issue-based films. I loved the adventure part of it.”

Kenworthy then involved himself with the festival on a small basis by contributing photos he took of his trips to Asia, writing small blurbs for the festival and volunteering during the actual event, he said. Around 2004, Kenworthy’s passion eventually became his career.

“I had dropped out of banking for the third and final time a career that I was never really all that excited about,” Kenworthy said. “I was sort of just figuring out what to do back in Telluride, writing for the local paper, and the executive director position became available at Mountainfilm became available and I thought, That would be perfect.'”

Since then, Kenworthy has run the festival and accompanies the tour wherever it goes. Despite being led by a Dartmouth alumnus, this is Moutainfilm’s first trip to Dartmouth in over 10 years, and it is the first visit to the College in which Kenworthy has headed the program.

While on tour, Mountainfilm chooses from eight films that played in the previous year’s festival to be screened at each location. The show at Spaulding featured the eight films in addition to two bonus shorts, which played as an addendum to the main show. Each film was briefly introduced by Kenworthy.

The first film, “Seasons: Winter” (2011), showcased kayaker Brian Ward and his love of traversing frozen rivers and waterways. “Wildwater: North Fork of the Payette” (2011), directed by Ansen Fogel, was another screened film that was similar to the first. Co-directed with mountain climber Cory Richards, the film depicts Richards and his teammates attempting the Herculean task of climbing the Himalayan mountain Gasherbrum II in the middle of the winter. With the spirit of “Touching the Void” (2003) in its veins, the film was a harrowing and nail-biting tale.

“Cold” would have been the best of the shorts had it not been for “Yosemite Falls High-Line” (2011). The short profiles professional slackliner Dean Potter as he attempts to walk across Yosemite Falls in California. The film is made all the more awe-inspiring when one learns that the feat involves essentially tightrope walking across a raging waterfall with nothing but a harness on the line. Potter’s laid-back attitude is in stark contrast to his nerves of steel when on the line.

Unfortunately, not all the films were good. “Chasing Water” (2011) by Peter McBride ’93 details McBride’s travels along the Colorado River as he traces its path. The film, though it raises environmental concerns, was uninspiring.

Mountainfilm would have been stale if it only focused on sports and the outdoors, however. “Mr. Happy Man” (2011) profiles Johnny Barnes, a Bermudan man who stands on the median of a busy traffic roundabout every day to greet passing motorists, while “Yelp, With Apologies to Allen Ginsberg’s Howl'” (2011) was a spoken word poem set to an animation urging people to unplug from their electronics and enjoy the world around them.

“Waiting for a Train” (2011) was the final film of the regular program. Along with being the most original of the shorts, it was the one out of which I wished they would make a full-length movie the most. The documentary short tells the story of Toshio Hirano, a Japanese immigrant who came to the United States to play bluegrass music.

Online publication editors discuss the ‘death of the book’

Three editors from different online publications discussed the relationship between their media and the Internet in a Monday lecture.

When the Los Angeles Review of Books first began as a Tumblr almost exactly a year ago, its first post was titled, “The Death of the Book.” It sounds like they might as well have given up right there. But the non-profit, free-content book review has managed to stay afloat and continue to pay its writers though minimally, editor Evan Kindley admits gaining influence and readership across the country and turning the so-called “death of the book” on its head.

Kindley, alongside N+1 editor Nikil Saval and C. Max Magee of The Millions literary magazine, spoke at yesterday’s New Literary Media panel, hosted by the English department lecture committee, in Carson Hall. Moderated by creative writing professor Jeff Sharlet, the three editors discussed how their periodicals are adapting to the changing media climate. The Los Angeles Review of Books is primarily a book review website; The Millions writes about books, culture and arts; and N+1 covers a variety of cultural and political news in a literary style.

Sharlet opened the panel by invoking Charles Dickens’ famous line “It was the best of times, it was the worst of times” to describe magazines and periodical publishing.

As many mourn the death of newspapers and watch magazines barely avoid the brink of bankruptcy, these publications refuse this fate. Both the Los Angeles Review of Books and The Millions are based solely online, while N+1 prints journals three times a year in addition to producing online content.

Kindley said that editor Tom Lutz started the Los Angeles Review of Books as he watched the book review sections of newspapers shut down, seeing an opportunity to fill that void. Saval and Magee echoed this story, saying that when N+1 and The Millions were created, the founders felt there was a demand for such publications as older magazines were failing.

Saval said he and other writers were initially baffled by discussions about the death of books. They thought it couldn’t be true, because, after all, they liked books.

Magee said that as newspapers began to hit financially challenging times, book reviews were the first section to go. In their final days, many reviews became formulaic and short, but he said book reviews can be well worth reading when writers are more innovative with their approach and get readers excited about engaging in discussions.

“We want our reviews to have a real point of view,” he said. “We want them to be creative in form.”

This creative form is exactly what the editors aim to preserve, and keeping their content creative is how they plan to do it.

“If the magazine [N+1] believes in one thing, it’s a certain belief in progress,” Saval said.

Saval suggested that N+1 actually has an ironically hostile relationship with the Internet. He said they proudly boasted what they thought was “the ugliest website on the Internet,” until the publication’s editors realized in 2008 that this approach was not good for their readership. Kindley, Saval and Magee all understand the importance of the Internet to their publications, but they differ, however, in their own personal opinions on how readers should be able to interact with their content.

Saval said he is staunchly against allowing comments on his website N+1’s time and resources can be better utilized with things other than moderating the comments made by readers, he said. By contrast, Magee likes the permanence of the conversation when it is contained in the original website. This discussion, he believes, gets lost when limited to 140 characters on a Twitter feed. Kindley, however, said that Twitter is the ideal location for one reader to spread the word of the Los Angeles Review of Books to his or her followers, who otherwise may not have known about the publication.

Each publication has also taken a different approach to ensuring its financial stability: The Los Angeles Review of Books relies on grants and donations and will soon ask loyal readers for subscriptions all content will remain free, so these subscriptions will be more like donations; N+1 started off on a subscription model but became non-profit in 2006; and The Millions is a for-profit, revenue-based website.

So what is the ever-elusive business model of the media world? These editors don’t have one answer, but they’re all finding success, albeit on a smaller scale than the media giants of today.

Rubin: Reintegration Requires Reform

This past weekend, President Barack Obama traveled to Cartagena, Colombia to attend the Summit of the Americas hosted by the Organization of American States. Although the summit made progress in easing inequality and other gaps between the United States, Canada and Latin America, the debate stalled over the issue of whether to reinstate Cuba into the OAS and allow the country to attend future summits.

Many Latin American nations have criticized the United States for its embargo on Cuba and its continued practice of isolating the island nation. However, to include the oppressive regime of the Castro brothers into the OAS, weeks after it committed oppressive crackdowns on peaceful democratic protesters, would be to disgrace the principles of American foreign policy and society. It is in the interest of the region to reintegrate Cuba, but such an action must be taken solely with the aim of promoting a more democratic and open Cuban government. Thus, giving Cuba membership in the OAS must be in response to signs that the Cuban regime is submitting to international pressure not just U.S. pressure to reform their governmental institutions.

U.S. relations with China were improved under the Nixon administration through increased contact and China’s reintegration to the international community. This should be the same objective of any U.S.-Cuban policy. The idea that the Cuban regime can be waited out, or that it will fall under its own volition from internal pressures, has proven, at least in the short term, to be unrealistic. Therefore, the U.S. must move to reform the Castro government through engagement and reintegration. However, this process must be started in response to signs from the Castro government that it is willing to reform. Such interactions must be driven, like our opening to China, with the expressed aim and unrelenting pressure to restore Cuba’s democratic institutions and to promote greater freedom for the Cuban people.

Whether or not American policies, specifically the embargo, are either functional or beneficial to progress in reforming Cuba or the U.S.-Cuban relationship are irrelevant to this argument. The issue at hand is whether the incorporation of Cuba into the OAS and its inclusion in its summits will promote reform in the island nation and foster better relations between the United States and Cuba. Some argue that international organizations can better pressure its members than individual states. However, Iran and North Korea have shown that such international pressure is not sufficient or effective in curbing their nuclear development. Therefore, the premise that including Cuba in the OAS will allow the OAS and the U.S. to better pressure the Castro government is misguided. By contrast, allowing Cuba to join the OAS at this time, weeks after the government’s crackdown on peaceful protestors during Pope Benedict XVI’s visit to the nation, would demonstrate that the regional community is willing to ignore and to legitimize the illegal and inhumane practices of the Castro government in the name of regional integration.

Further, it is not in the interest of the OAS to include the nation of Cuba. As ideological differences have grown between the United States and the leaders of Latin America, the OAS has become less relevant to regional affairs. Therefore, including Cuba in the organization would only add to the ideological polarization and contribute to further inaction in addressing the pressing concerns facing the region, such as the drug war and economic deficiencies and inequalities. The addition of Cuba would add strains to the debate within the OAS, as it would incorporate longstanding conflicts that are unlikely to change, subsequently stalling any actions aimed at addressing a variety of other issues that the OAS is in a position to address.

To incorporate Cuba into the OAS would reward the Castro regime for its brutal crackdowns on peaceful protesters, as well as legitimize such action within the spoke of promoting regional integration. The isolated island nation must be eventually reintegrated into the regional community. However, this process must begin with signs on the part of the Castro brothers that their regime is open to reform and is willing to follow international standards of governing.

Yang: A Stranglehold on the Bank

After what was the only seriously contested World Bank presidential selection process in history, College President Jim Yong Kim was elected as the new World Bank president yesterday. While congratulations are certainly in order for our soon-to-be former president, there is ample room for debate over whether or not Kim is indeed the best choice for his new job. The Bank’s decision to pass over Nigerian Finance Minister Ngozi Okonjo-Iweala was certainly not an apolitical decision. In an unfortunately astute commentary on the Bank’s inner workings, Okonjo-Iweala herself commented, “You know this thing is not really being decided on merit.”

If the selection of the World Bank’s president were an apolitical process, Okonjo-Iweala would surely have triumphed over Kim. Endorsed by The Economist, the African Union and many former employees of the World Bank, Okonjo-Iweala went into the selection with a stellar track record of reducing national debt, gaining access to international credit markets and fighting corruption in the Nigerian government. Her candidacy was also supported by the Brazilian and South African governments. In a pointed jab at the U.S.-European duopoly on the Bank and the International Monetary Fund, South African Finance Minister Pravin Gordhan called for looking “beyond the verbiage of democracy” and asking in substantive terms whether the World Bank has met “the democratic test.”

In a similar vein, former Colombian Finance Minister Jose Antonio Ocampo, who pulled out of the race on Friday, noted that the selection process for the World Bank presidency is a “political-oriented exercise” rather than an examination of candidate credentials. In this political atmosphere, Okonjo-Iweala had a slim chance of overcoming Kim’s inherent advantage as the U.S. nominee, despite her qualifications and immense popularity with outside observers.

In many respects, Kim was also an impressive candidate. His roles as the co-founder of Partners in Health, the former director of the HIV/AIDS division at the World Health Organization and president of Dartmouth gave him a varied and accomplishment-studded resume. However, compared to Okonjo-Iweala, Kim had very little substantive experience specifically related to finance and development. Ultimately, it was politics specifically the United States calling in a favor from the European bloc after American support for the nomination of France’s Christine Lagarde to head the IMF last year that clinched the World Bank presidency for Kim.

Kim’s elevation to the Bank’s helm over more qualified Okonjo-Iweala is only one symptom of the problematic nature of the U.S.-European stranglehold on the IMF and the World Bank. While this Western centrism may have been understandable in the aftermath of World War II when Asia, Africa and South America were struggling with postwar reconstruction, colonialism and internal sociopolitical disorder the contemporary emergence of strong, qualified leaders on all of these continents calls the West’s stranglehold on the world’s two most influential international economic institutions into question.

Moreover, the continued Western dominance over the World Bank and IMF presents unique problems relating to these organizations’ developmental perspectives. Whereas Okonjo-Iweala would have brought a first-person perspective on development issues to the Bank’s leadership, leaders such as Kim and Lagarde inevitably function with Western assumptions about governance and institutions. Unfortunately, Western style financial and government institutions often fail or underperform when transplanted into non-Western nations where normative standards of behavior around economic exchanges and the division of labor may be radically different.

This continued U.S.-European duopoly on the world’s financial institutions is potentially unsustainable. Given that both the Asian and African economies are growing while the U.S. and the Eurozone are both continuing to struggle with the aftermath of their respective economic meltdowns, it is not inconceivable that Asia and possibly South America, depending on how Brazil performs in the coming years could overtake the United States or the Eurozone as the site of the world’s primary economic power. If that day comes, it is impossible to envision that these developing countries, and China in particular, would be content in allowing Americans and Europeans to continue to control the world’s primary financial institutions.

Daily Debriefing

Saudi Arabian colleges may now enroll women in their political science departments, the Saudi Minister of Education announced on Saturday, Al Arabiya News reported. The change is intended to prepare women to run in municipal elections beginning in 2015, King Abdullah announced in a speech to the Shura Council last year. Sarhan al-Otaibi, a politics professor at King Saud University in Riyadh, recommended that women be granted permission to study political science because the number of women interested in the discipline greatly exceeds the number of men. As a result, King Saud University will be the first college in the country to welcome women into its political science department. Female students who wish to study other subjects in the future may be required to take a certain number of political science courses to form a “clear political vision,” Al Arabiya reported.

Republican presidential candidate and former Gov. Mitt Romney, R-Mass., announced at a closed-door fundraiser that he would greatly reduce the size of the U.S. Department of Education if elected, according to MSNBC. Romney said he would either consolidate it with another department or restructure it on a much smaller scale. He cited the department’s usefulness in combating teachers’ unions and the political volatility of the issue as reasons not to eliminate the Education Department entirely, MSNBC reported. Romney’s speech on Sunday, which went into great detail about his policy views, was given at a private home in Palm Beach, Fla. and was overheard by journalists on the sidewalk below, according to MSNBC.

Wellcome Trust, the second largest non-governmental sponsor of scientific research in the world, bolstered its support for open access scientific publishing last week when it announced that it would consider sanctions against scientists who do not release their results freely to the public, according to The New York Times. The trust, which is based in London, spends approximately $1 billion each year funding medical and scientific research. Although existing Wellcome policy encourages open access internet publication, only about 55 percent of scientists comply, with many preferring to publish in subscription journals such as Science or Nature, according to The Times. Such journals are problematic because subscriptions can cost thousands of dollars for university libraries, The Times reported.