College to announce interim president on Tuesday, search committee chair on Thursday

Following the World Bank’s Monday announcement that College President Jim Yong Kim has been elected to serve as the Bank’s next president, the Board of Trustees will announce the College’s interim president on Tuesday, Chairman of the Board Stephen Mandel ’78 said in a statement to The Dartmouth. The head of the search committee that will select Dartmouth’s 18th president will be announced on Thursday, according to Director of Media Relations Justin Anderson.

Kim will step down as College president on June 30, the same day that current World Bank President Robert Zoellick will vacate his position at the Bank. Kim will assume the presidency of the World Bank on July 1, The New York Times reported.

Kim’s appointment marks the end of his nearly three-year tenure as the College’s 17th president, the second shortest presidential tenure in Dartmouth history. Kim was selected as the first Asian-American president of an Ivy League institution in 2009.

“Jim has been an inspiring and innovative leader, and we have no doubt that he will bring the same energy and creativity to the World Bank that he brought to Dartmouth,” Mandel said in the statement. “Today is Jim’s day, a day to for all of us to celebrate his exciting new opportunity.”


The World Bank board of directors confirmed College President Jim Yong Kim as the next president of the Bank.

College President Jim Yong Kim will serve as the World Bank’s 12th president, beating out opposing nominee Nigerian Finance Minister Ngozi Okonjo-Iweala, the World Bank board of directors announced today, according to The New York Times. Kim’s appointment marks the end of his almost three-year tenure as the College’s 17th president and the first Asian-American president of an Ivy League institution.

Kim will take leadership of the international financial institution designed to reduce poverty trough loans to developing countries after current Bank President Robert Zoellick, who announced his resignation in February, steps down on June 30, according to the Associated Press.

His confirmation to the position comes despite criticism from some observers that his relative lack of economic experience made him an inferior candidate and amidst pressure from leaders in many developing nations that the head of the Bank who has always been American since the Bank’s inception in 1944 should come from amongst their own.

U.S. President Barack Obama announced Kim as his nominee for the position on March 23, citing the need for a “development professional to lead the world’s largest development bank.” Since then, Kim has embarked on a worldwide listening tour in Latin America, Asia and Africa to meet with World Bank stakeholders and rally support for his candidacy.

The third candidate for the position, Columbia University professor and former Colombian Finance Minister Jose Antonio Ocampo, dropped out of the race on Friday.

On Friday, Russian Finance Minister Anton Siluanov announced that Kim’s “considerable professional qualities, as well as his experience and knowledge,” made him worthy of Russia’s endorsement for the position, as well as the nation’s support during voting by the Bank’s board of directors, according to Reuters. Russia joined the United States, Mexico, Canada, Japan, South Korea and European nations on the list of those backing Kim’s candidacy.

Because the United States has the largest percentage of the vote of any single country and Europe represents the organization’s largest voting bloc, the World Bank has always been led by an American, raising complaints from economists and leaders in the developing world. In 2010, the United States joined other Bank shareholder nations in pledging transparent, merit-based processes in the selection of the next president, according to CNN. Part of this transparency involved interviews between the candidates and the Bank’s board, but many say the interviews remain more of a formality than a vetting process to determine the best nominee.

Okonjo-Iweala told reporters on Monday that the Bank’s decision was not based on merit and instead relied on “political weight and shares,” according to The Guardian. While she expected Kim to get the job, Okonjo-Iweala said her candidacy has shown the viability of candidates from developing country to campaign and run the “entire architecture” of the Bank.

Kim’s work prior to assuming the College presidency in 2009 was largely in the public health sector. He graduated from Brown University with a major in human biology in 1982, earned a medical degree from Harvard Medical School in 1991 and completed his doctorate in anthropology at Harvard University in 1993. He served as the chair of the department of global health and social medicine at HMS and has worked extensively on research about treatment for drug-resistant HIV/AIDS.

He is the co-founder of Partners in Health, a non-profit organization working to improve health care access in low-income communities worldwide. In 2004, the World Health Organization chose Kim to head its “3 by 5” program, which aimed to treat three million HIV/AIDS patients by 2005.

But his comparative lack of economic experience concerned some experts, leading a group of 39 former World Bank managers to write a letter to the Bank’s board endorsing Okonjo-Iweala, according to Bloomberg News.

In his interview with the Bank’s board, Kim tried to assuage concerns about his readiness for the job, insisting that he would “ask hard questions about the status quo” and “challenge existing orthodoxies,” according to a U.S. Treasury Department press release. Kim said his “global orientation” gained from work with PIH and the WHO would make him attuned to the needs of developing nations.

South African Finance Minister Pravin Gordhan said the decision shows the need for reform to both the Bank and the International Monetary Fund in order to increase transparency and lessen the control of the “established powers” over the organizations’ decision-making processes, according to the AP.

Dartmouth’s Board of Trustees has said it will announce its pick for the College’s interim president within the day or days immediately following Kim’s announcement. Chairman of the Board of Trustees Stephen Mandel ’78 said the confirmation of Kim’s nomination would begin the search process for the College’s 18th president.

On expected announcement day, Okonjo-Iweala says Kim will be selected World Bank president

As the World Bank’s announcement of its new president approaches, Nigerian Finance Minister Ngozi Okonjo-Iweala one of two candidates for the post conceded that College President Jim Yong Kim will likely receive the majority of the board of directors’ votes for the presidency, The Guardian reported.

“It is voting with political weight and shares, and therefore the United States will get it,” Okonjo-Iweala told The Guardian.

Because the an American has historically held the presidency of the World Bank, experts have agreed it is unlikely that Okonjo-Iweala will be selected over Kim. Regardless, this is the first year that a non-American candidate was considered a serious contender, The Guardian reported. Although Okonjo-Iweala will probably not receive the appointment, the selection process for the World Bank president “will never be the same again,” she told The Guardian.

Former Colombia Finance Minister Jose Antonio Ocampo, formerly the third nominee for the position, withdrew from the race on Friday. Ocampo has announced he will endorse Okonjo-Iweala, The Guardian reported.

This article will be updated as more information becomes available.

Daily Debriefing

After a U.S. Department of Justice and Department of Education inquiry into the apparently racist climate at the University of California, San Diego prompted by several recent complaints, the university reached a settlement with the two departments, The Chronicle of Higher Education reported. The complaints stemmed from incidents that seemed to target the African-American community, including public displays of a Ku Klux Klan hood and a noose. After an investigation by government officials into the events, university administrators met with representatives of the Department of Justice and Department of Education to create a plan to address the racial tensions, according to The Chronicle. As part of the agreement, the university voluntarily agreed to conditions that included revising its racial harassment policies, creating an Office for the Prevention of Harassment and Discrimination and holding mandatory anti-discrimination training for students and staff, The Chronicle reported.

The Canadian government is drastically cutting funding for a grant program that provides financial support for Canadian studies programs at numerous American universities, according to The Vancouver Observer. The Canadian Department of Foreign Affairs which administers the 12 grants worth between roughly $11,000 and $15,000 to universities faces cuts to its $72-million budget for the fiscal year, The Observer reported. Speculation has arisen about whether this decision was made in retaliation to U.S. President Barack Obama’s stance on the Keystone XL Pipeline and the Canadian oil sands, but professors at universities using the grants said they did not believe this to be the case, according to The Observer.

The nations’ elite cancer care facilities perform only marginally better than community hospitals in meeting standard quality benchmarks in the treatment of terminal cancer patients, according to a press release by The Dartmouth Institute for Health Policy and Clinical Practice. The report is based on a study conducted by Dartmouth researchers that will be published in the April 2012 issue of Health Affairs. The study was conducted between 2003 and 2007 by following the treatment of 215,000 Medicare patients who were given the prognosis that they were likely to die within a year. The study found that no particular hospital was more successful at meeting the standards set by the National Quality Forum, which include lower rates of intensive care unit use in the last month of life, use of chemotherapy in the last 14 days of life, deaths occurring in hospitals and hospice stays of three days or more, according to the release.

Undergraduate wins $25,000 prize at Tuck competition

At the Green Venture Entrepreneurship Contest at the Tuck School of Business on Saturday, first-place finisher Alison Stace-Naughton ’11, who developed what was initially a prototype for an introductory engineering course into a practical tool to prevent tissue damage in endoscopic surgery, received a prize of $25,000.

The prize awarded to the company came from a pool of $50,000, which was split between the first, second and third place winners, as well as six honorable mentions, according to Stace-Naughton.

Stace-Naughton’s product is a vacuum-assisted tissue stabilization tool to help prevent stomach movement during endoscopic surgery. The device uses vacuum-driven suction to grab and stabilize organs while doctors perform surgery, according to Stace-Naughton.

Spiral-E is specifically designed for natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery, a minimally invasive procedure in which surgeons operate through orifices such as the mouth.

“We’re going to have less failures and better outcomes in the fastest growing area of minimally invasive surgery,” she said.

Stace-Naughton originally designed an initial prototype of the device with three other students for her Introduction to Engineering course, after which she consulted professors at Dartmouth Medical School for advice on how to improve the device’s design.

The product has already been tested in vitro on pig stomachs at Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center, though the device must also undergo in vivo testing inside live organisms to gain regulatory approval.

Stace-Naughton plans to raise around $400,000 to create a medical-grade prototype of the product, gain regulatory clearance and complete intellectual property filing.

“We are pursuing a highly capital efficient development strategy and looking for an early exit,” she said. “I know I’m not going to be competitive around the big players on my own.”

PayOrPass, a company founded by Nathan Sharp Tu’12, won the second place award of $10,000 for its model for a program that allows consumers to shop for products online at lower prices.

The service will allow customers to submit an offer on a product that they wish to acquire for a discount. Their bid is then sent to PayOrPass merchant subscribers, who have the opportunity to accept the discounted price if they wish to liquidate that item.

Customers then receive an email indicating that their bid has been accepted, and the customers have 24 hours to either pay for the product or cancel their original offer.

“We think that if things go as planned, this can be very disruptive to e-commerce,” Sharp said.

The company will receive a 15 percent commission for every purchase that goes through the PayOrPass system, Sharp said.

Sharp and the other members of the PayOrPass team initially plan to raise at least $700,000 by the end of the year in seed funding for advertising, sales and development to achieve a customer base of around 15,000 users.

Grocery Glee, founded by Andres Bilbao Tu’13 and Pablo Navarro ’13, won the third place prize of $5,000 for its development of Android, iPhone and iPad applications to create a more streamlined online grocery shopping experience.

“We will take a two-hour chore and turn it into a five-minute pleasurable experience,” Bilbao said.

The application works by allowing users to view virtual aisles of groceries and select the items by using a finger to drag them into a shopping cart. Retailers who receive the benefit of increased publicity and easier promotions pay a commission for each item sold through the Grocery Glee application.

Grocery Glee currently has two merchant subscribers in Colombia, including the “equivalent of CVS in Latin America,” Navarro said. The application is currently only targeted for Latin American companies, but Bilbao and Navarro plan to expand the company if it is successful.

Judges in the competition included Upstart founder Dave Girouard ’84 Tu’96, Greylock Partners partner and Dartmouth trustee Bill Helman ’80, Vertica Systems CEO Andy Palmer Tu’94 and Borealis Ventures managing director Matt Rightmire Tu’96.

The three finalists were selected out of nine semifinalists on Friday in a preliminary round in front of a separate panel of judges. Other semifinalists included GlucoSmart, Memeja, Puddleworks, Pureflora, Rock Lobby and Soteer, which each received an honorable mention in the competition.

Spiral-E placed second at the Dartmouth Entrepreneurial Society’s entrepreneurship competition last Friday, while Memeja, a rage comics website created by Delos Chang ’14, won the first place prize.

The entrepreneurship contest was held at the conclusion of the Greener Ventures Conference, a day-long event that aimed to promote the discussion of topics and issues involved with entrepreneurial initiatives.

The conference began with keynote speeches from Dartmouth trustee Trevor Rees-Jones ’73, founder and president of Chief Oil and Gas, and Christina Stoltz ’06, a social entrepreneur.

Rees-Jones spoke about the challenges of working in the natural gas industry and recounted multiple experiences of failure before finally becoming successful.

Stoltz talked about her motivation and experience starting the Philadelphia-based REQ1 and Ploome a non-profit/for-profit hybrid enterprise that combines “diversity, wellness and social responsibility,” Stoltz said.

REQ1, a non-profit organization, provides free physical fitness classes to victims of gender-based violence while Ploome, a for-profit company, offers group and private pilates, cardio and yoga classes.

Conference attendees said they enjoyed the level of innovation that was showcased at each event.

“I thought it was a great showing of Dartmouth energy and a nice cross section of people of different ages and concentrations,” Daniel Rowe Tu’09 said. “It was inspiring to see what everyone was doing.”

Yolanda Masbeth DMS’10 said she was especially impressed by the level of proposals presented during the entrepreneurial competition.

“It was inspiring to see the level of innovation that was occurring and the great level of interest that people had in developing these concepts,” Masbeth said.

The Greener Ventures conference which was sponsored by the Dartmouth Entrepreneurial Network and the Entrepreneurship Initiative also featured 12 panel discussions and a showcase of several start-up companies.

Archive preserves Jewish culture

The lively sounds of Yiddish folk music can often be heard drifting from the office of Alex Hartov, a professor at the Thayer School of Engineering and the founder of the Dartmouth Jewish Sound Archive, an online database of nearly 40,000 songs, broadcasts and interviews that reflect a range of Jewish life. Hartov and Asian and Middle Eastern languages and literature professor Lewis Glinert have worked on the archive’s website for the past 10 years.

Hartov and Glinert hope to ensure the various pieces, which include “historical recordings from the creation of the state of Israel and radio broadcasts in Yiddish,” are available to everyone who is interested in Jewish culture for both educational and entertainment aims, Hartov said.

“The purpose is not to have a collection that reflects everything about what’s out there,” Hartov said. “The purpose is to collect things that would otherwise disappear from collective memory.”

The archive itself was created in 1992 when Hartov came into possession of a large collection of radio broadcasts formerly owned by his wife’s uncle. He first put the recordings online during Fall term 2002.

Today, the collection features content spanning from the turn of the 20th century to the 1980s, according to Hartov. Most recordings have been acquired through personal donations, including one gift of 22 boxes of records from a Jewish community center in Montreal, with 100,000 tracks still waiting to be put online.

Every piece is “exceptional in terms of its historical or musical value,” Hartov said.

What first began as a family collection of a few hundred recordings has since become a global resource serving 6,500 users, including cantors, rabbis and students in courses at Columbia University and Rutgers University, according to Hartov. Users of the archive are in places as far away as New Zealand and Thailand wherever there may be an interest in Jewish culture and history, he said.

“When I get a request from someone who’s in a faraway country that I think is unusual for our archive, I ask if there’s anything they can contribute from the local culture,” he said. “In that way, I was able to obtain recordings from France and South Africa.”

Hartov partnered with Glinert, who studies Jewish religious texts and modern Israeli society, in 2002.

“He met me right outside [Bartlett Hall] two years ago, stopped me and said, Do you know anyone at [Harvard University] who could take all these records?'” Glinert said. “And I said, No way, it’s going to revolutionize my teaching.'”

The College helped support the archive’s creation, providing funding as well as technical assistance and legal advice on intellectual property and copyright laws, according to Glinert. In order to follow legal protocol, the archived materials cannot be downloaded. Those outside the Dartmouth community can access the files only with Hartov and Glinert’s permission.

“The first place we went before we set this site up was to the College legal office to see what we could do,” Glinert said. “It allows us to sleep at night, so we know we’re not doing a Napster.”

The professors took on different roles in the archive’s development, with Hartov serving as technical director and Glinert as cultural director. The archive includes one of Glinert’s own recordings, a BBC broadcast about the rebirth of Hebrew as a modern language that features an interview with a native speaker.

“[Hartov’s] vision was how to take the sound and polish it up and make it first-rate sound,” Glinert said. “My vision was how to use it in a classroom.”

The archive has become a tool for professors and students in many courses particularly in French, English, Russian, anthropology and many of Glinert’s own classes due to the unique nature of the project, Glinert said. Before the archive went online, Glinert had difficulty finding recordings to use as examples in his linguistics and Hebrew studies classes, he said.

“In those days, YouTube was not even a twinkle in anyone’s eye, and other libraries wouldn’t send recordings because they were too fragile,” he said. “I said to professor Hartov, Let’s build an archive out of those recordings.'”

Interested students are encouraged to become involved with the archives as paid assistants, Hartov and Glinert said.

Some students have used the archive for their own research projects, including Daniel Schley ’12, a Hebrew studies major who first listened to material from the archives in one of Glinert’s classes. Schley subsequently chose to work with the archives as a presidential scholar.

“I’m Jewish, [and] I had a pretty good Jewish upbringing, but I was really never exposed to a lot of the music that was on the website before,” Schley said. “A lot of it is very meaningful music.” He assisted with data entry and conducted his own research on modern Orthodox music, eventually interviewing artists whose work he had encountered in the archives. Schley, who also plays cello and has long been interested in both Judaism and music, said he enjoyed the opportunity to combine both interests.

“It was a very rewarding experience for me,” he said. “If you’re interested in Jewish music, this is the place to go.”

Rabbi Edward Boraz, executive director of Hillel, said he uses the archives which he described as a “mitzvah” and a “modern-day treasure trove” to inform his religious services.

“This archive is such a necessary piece in preserving the richness of our tradition.” Boraz said. “It means that it didn’t perish, and the people who wrote those songs, their spirit lives on.”

Ocampo drops out of World Bank race; Russia endorses Kim

Friday marked two substantial developments in the race for World Bank presidency as one of the three candidates, Columbia University professor and former Colombian Finance Minister Jose Antonio Ocampo, withdrew his bid for the position and Russia and Canada pledged their support for College President Jim Yong Kim’s candidacy, according to Reuters.

Ocampo who was nominated by the Brazilian government at the request of the Dominican Republic said in a statement that his candidacy had been handicapped by a lack of open support from his home country, which stated last month that it was aiming to concentrate on a more likely successful campaign for a Colombian president of the International Labor Organization, Reuters reported.

The contest for the presidency marks an unprecedented challenge to U.S. control of the World Bank, since an American citizen has always run the World Bank, according to The Globe and Mail, a Canadian newspaper. In 2009, President Barack Obama agreed with other G20 summit leaders that future international leaders would be chosen in an open system and based on merit, The Globe and Mail reported. During the past week, all candidates were interviewed by the World Bank.

Nonetheless, Reuters reported that Ocampo said in a statement, “It is clear that the process is shifting from a strict merit-based competition, in which my candidacy stood on strong grounds, into a more political-oriented exercise.”

Ocampo, a noted development economist, has held positions in both government and academia, including chair of Colombia’s Central Bank, the United Nations Undersecretary-General for Economic and Social Affairs and member of the Board of Visitors of the Dickey Center for International Understanding at the College. He is also currently the director of the economic and political development concentration at Columbia’s School of International and Public Affairs and is a public affairs professor at the university.

His withdrawal leaves Nigerian Finance Minister Ngozi Okonjo-Iwaeala, who served as the World Bank managing director and World Bank Group vice president, as the sole candidate campaigning against Kim.

“I would say [Ocampo] was the weakest of the three candidates, and it was not a surprise that he dropped out,” Dartmouth economics professor Douglas Irwin said in an email to The Dartmouth. “Now it is a two person race, but Kim still has a strong edge because the United States and its allies back him.”

Ocampo said he hoped emerging-market nations would rally behind Okonjo-Iwaeala, as they both represented developing countries in their candidacy.

Columbia University economics professor Jagdish Bhagwati criticized Ocampo’s bid, however, for initially splitting developing countries’ support.

“The candidacy of Mr. Ocampo was a selfish and disastrous move because it implied that the far superior candidacy of Ngozi Okonjo-Iweala, a dream candidate’ in terms of her ability and experience, was an African’ choice whereas Ocampo was the Latin American’ choice,” Bhagwati wrote in an email to The Dartmouth. “Ocampo’s withdrawal at this late stage only underlines his irresponsibility in advancing his lackluster candidacy. Ocampo has made Dr. Kim’s election much more likely, though the U.S. rejection of Dr. Okonjo-Iweala remains a blot on Obama’s record.”

The potential of a united front from developing countries with emerging markets dissolved when Russia, one of the most rapidly-growing economic powers in the world, announced it would support Kim, according to Reuters.

After Kim met with Russian Finance Minister Anton Siluanov on Friday, the Russian Finance Ministry said in a statement reported by Reuters, “Taking into account Mr. Kim’s considerable professional qualities, as well as his experience and knowledge, the Russian Federation will support the candidacy of Jim Yong Kim during the voting by the Bank’s board of directors.”

The statement also said that Kim had gained significant experience through his work in Russia with the World Health Organization, for which he served in various roles from 2003 to 2005. A public health expert, Kim has already been in Asia and parts of Latin and Central America and Africa on a “listening tour” to meet financial leaders.

Reuters reported that Kim is still the favorite to win the presidency, as he also has the support of the United States, European nations, Mexico, Canada, Japan and South Korea, among others.

As the U.S. has veto power and Europe represents the largest voting bloc, the World Bank has always been headed by an American and the International Monetary Fund by a European, which allows Europe and the U.S. considerable influence over the flow of money and policy advice, according to the Globe and Mail.

Reuters reported that Okonjo-Iweala thanked Ocampo and said, “I am proud that Ocampo and I have helped make history by changing the way that World Bank presidential elections are contested.”

Ocampo said that while the selection process was not administered in a fully open, transparent and merit-based fashion, he believes that a strong precedent for an improved system had been established, Reuters reported.

Staff writer Sasha Dudding contributed reporting to this article.

Student Assembly candidates meet in fourth debate

The five Student Assembly presidential candidates participated in the last of four debates on Friday, discussing their hopes for the next College president and arguing over the best way to incentivize attendance at General Assembly meetings. The debate focused on the candidates’ specific plans to address campus issues ranging from the Assembly’s provision of student services to improving communication with the administration.

Presidential candidates Max Hunter ’13, Suril Kantaria ’13, Erin Klein ’13, J.T. Tanenbaum ’13 and Rachel Wang ’13 took part in the debate, sponsored by The Dartmouth.

Candidates were given one minute to respond to questions posed by the moderator, Executive Editor Jay Webster ’13, as well as 30 seconds for an optional rebuttal. Three audience questions were debated after the planned questions had been asked.

Candidates discussed the importance of education and the Assembly’s relationship with the student body and administration in combatting hazing, sexual assault and binge drinking.

Kantaria emphasized that the Assembly should be a facilitator for the organizations that already exist to combat such issues instead of seeking to “reinvent the wheel” itself. Committee members should be brought to Assembly meetings to foster communication while they are “sitting at the same table,” he said.

Klein said that the College has tended to simply add “another level of bureaucracy” whenever it confronts campus life issues. Instead, the Assembly needs to engage in expanded education efforts, she said.

“The most important thing that [the Assembly] can do for these three issues is educate and publicize the various accomplishments of groups on campus,” she said.

Tanenbaum agreed that education was paramount but emphasized that this education should be directed toward “the proper community.”

Wang also said that more training and education are necessary, citing the fact that hazing does not have a clear definition. She also said the “underlying issues” that drive students to drink should be addressed with improved counseling services.

Hunter said that “real changes” are not happening at the College despite the presence of many committees, adding that a number of current policies need to be abolished or revised. Trial and error of ineffective policies is unhelpful, Hunter said.

“We need to recognize horrible ideas on paper,” he said.

Two opposing ideas were proposed by Tanenbaum and Kantaria in response to a question about how to incentivize student body participation in the Assembly. Tanenbaum said that Assembly members should ask student groups directly what the Assembly can do to help them, while Kantaria said that student groups on campus should send representatives to Assembly meetings.

Tanenbaum said that Kantaria’s idea was similar to one proposed by former Assembly president Eric Tanner ’11, who sought to bring representatives to Assembly meetings and failed. Kantaria said that, having spoken to Tanner, the two ideas were dissimilar and Tanner had never attempted to implement the system of “liaisons” from groups across campus.

Hunter said that students would have no interest in the Assembly unless it offered them something unique, namely the ability to represent their needs to the administration.

“Unless we can offer student groups something that they can’t do themselves, they won’t come,” he said. “We can make administrators sweat.”

The candidates agreed that if College President Jim Yong Kim were to leave the College, the new president must possess an intimate knowledge of the inner workings of Dartmouth as well as experience in the fields of education and administration. The 2009 student body president was the only student representative on the presidential search committee that selected Kim.

Wang said that a “history of working with students” is important because there is something “uniquely exciting” about the workings of a college campus. A combination of the values of tradition and innovation is also important in a College president, she said.

Klein said that the new College president has to care about community and diversity above all else.

Candidates also agreed that the Assembly would be able to continue focusing on student life even if the administration entered a state of flux with the possible departure of Kim.

The school already has administrators who are “running the show,” Wang said. The Assembly needs to find these “rubies” and utilize them effectively during the transition period, she said.

Hunter said that an interim year would be the ideal time for the Assembly to redefine itself by providing a “united front” of student opinions to the administration.

“[This] is a perfect year for [the Assembly] to rise and fulfill the potential we know exists,” Hunter said. “You can’t budge, you can’t falter.”

Klein agreed that the administration would have to “have no choice but to get in line” if the students were able to present strong community opinions.

Kantaria said that in a time of change, it is particularly important for the Assembly to have a president with experience dealing with the administration.

In the past, the administration has perceived the Assembly as a group that “doesn’t represent the student body at large,” Kantaria said. To change this, the Assembly needs to have forums that create a “direct link” between students and the administration, he said.

Tanenbaum said that in order to develop a “united front,” a “Pangaea 2.0” that representatives from across campus are free to attend must meet on a termly or bi-termly basis to discuss campus issues and reach conclusions about solutions.

Tanenbaum said that while student groups on campus lack faith in the Assembly, they would be willing to come to meetings outside of the Assembly itself.

Kantaria said he “fundamentally” disagreed with Tanenbaum’s approach. The goal should not be to create something different, but to fix the Assembly, he said.

Hunter said that the Assembly needs a president who “shamelessly and maybe not maturely” insists that the Assembly listens to student input because there is “nothing to lose at this point.”

“We’ve been so belittled by this administration that there’s really nothing left for them to take,” he said.

The candidates also discussed the issues they believed were not being given sufficient attention at the College.

Kantaria said that a “peer advising” system should be put into place for first-year students.

“If we want to build community at Dartmouth, we need to make sure that the freshmen have upperclassman mentors,” he said.

Tanenbaum said that not only freshman advising but “advising across the board” needs to be improved.

Klein agreed that freshman advising is important and said that homophobia, racism and classism are also prominent problems that are “hushed up and not talked about” on campus.

Hunter said that the issues Klein brought up were not Dartmouth-specific problems but rather “world problems” that could not be solved with a forum.

“Forums are a running joke on this campus because there are so many, and yet talking about stuff simply doesn’t do anything,” he said.

Klein said that the College needs to “churn out the next leaders,” and an inability to address such issues would be a “failure of our education system.”

Wang said that mental health issues are not being addressed sufficiently and that more counseling needs to be provided for those students who are unhappy and possibly self-medicating as a result.

“We have this assumption that everyone is happy or that everyone should be happy,” she said.

Wang finished the debate by saying that she has learned during the course of the debates that there are many things that the candidates agree on.

“I hope when we leave this place today and we finish voting, we continue working on these ideas,” she said. “You don’t need a title to be a leader on campus.”

Students who attended the debate said they were impressed by the candidates’ potential for improving the campus in the future.

“It honestly did make me a little bit excited for the future because I didn’t really have a great grasp of what [the Assembly] has done in the past, and I think that all of the candidates could potentially do a good job,” Derek DeWitt ’15 said.

The candidates more effectively focused on their specific goals for the future during the final debate than in previous debates, according to students in attendance.

“The candidates gave very candid responses and they pressed one another to give more specifics than in past debates,” Jason Goodman ’12 said.

The debate was held in Paganucci Lounge in the Class of 1953 Commons at 4 p.m. on Friday. Voting will occur on Monday from 8 a.m. to 8 p.m.