Daily Debriefing

The upcoming New Hampshire primary elections will play an important role in the developing race for the Republican presidential nomination, government professor Ronald Shaiko said in an interview with WPTZ Burlington on Jan. 3. The primary, like the Iowa caucus, will help the Republican party decide which candidate will win the nomination, as no Republican candidate has ever won the nomination without winning either New Hampshire or Iowa, according to Shaiko. The timing of the New Hampshire primary, which closely follows the Iowa caucus, means that candidates who fared well in Iowa will still be in the spotlight during the primary, Shaiko said. By the end of the primary, candidates who performed poorly are expected to drop out, narrowing the race for the nomination.

A study conducted by The Chronicle of Higher Education found that New Hampshire ranks as the nation’s least-educated state legislature, with only 53.4 percent of members holding a college degree of some kind, Menlo Park Patch, a Menlo Park, Calif.-based news source, reported. California ranked first in the nation with 89.9 percent of legislators holding college degrees, though the New Hampshire legislature, composed of 424 representatives, is significantly larger than California’s legislature of 120 representatives. The most popular alma mater for Californian representatives is the University of California, Los Angeles, followed by the University of California, Berkeley, with the University of California, Davis and Harvard University tied for third. Although New York ranked fourth for its college graduation percentage, it has more representatives with education levels higher than a bachelor’s degree, at 56 percent of the legislature, than the California legislature, 48 percent of whose representatives hold a degree higher than a bachelor’s, according to Menlo Park Patch. The study found that the five states with the highest percentage of college graduates are California, Virginia, Nebraska, New York and Texas.

De Vink analyzes future of U.S.-Europe relations

With the United States increasingly shifting its economic and diplomatic focus from Europe to the Pacific Rim and given the persistent challenges of the debt crisis, the importance of the historically-strong alliance between the United States and European Union may lessen in the future, Dutch diplomat Marcel de Vink said in a lunch discussion at the Rockefeller Center on Friday.

De Vink, the head of the political department at the Royal Dutch Embassy in Washington, spoke in a roundtable setting to an audience of five undergraduate and graduate students and Rockefeller Center staff about the changing relationship between the United States and the EU.

“There is enormous potential for the transatlantic relationship, but it’s something that we need to work on and it’s not self-evident,” de Vink said.

Changing demographics in the United States are transforming American politics from a Eurocentric focus to a global perspective, de Vink said.

Furthermore, powerful economic developments in Asia are contributing to the “historical inevitabilities” that will diminish Europe’s role on the world stage, de Vink said.

The shift in economic growth and market development from Europe to Asia is changing the relationship between the United States and the EU, de Vink said. Nevertheless, this historically powerful economic and political alliance is continuing to influence geopolitics in significant ways, he said.

“The economic relationship between the Netherlands and the United States is strong, but if you take Europe and the United States, that is the strongest economic relationship there is in the world,” de Vink said. “The choices of [Chancellor Angela] Merkel in Germany may actually affect the reelection of the [U.S.] president it has a big impact.”

The future of the transatlantic alliance will be significantly impacted by the European debt crisis, a “systematic problem that requires a systematic solution,” de Vink said.

Another dimension of transatlantic relations is the current trajectory of imbalanced participation among nations in NATO that threatens this historically powerful military alliance.

“If the Europeans do not do more burden sharing and they let the Americans foot the bill by not investing in necessary military capabilities that the alliance needs, then I think in a changing world you might not necessarily see the same kind of commitment to NATO by the United States in the long run,” de Vink said.

De Vink stressed that American relations with the EU as a collective of countries are separate from the “privileged” relations many of the member countries have with the United States. The Netherlands, for example, supported American military efforts in Iraq and Afghanistan even while other member countries of the EU opposed the wars, de Vink said.

“If you actually zoom in, and on a lot of different themes, we do so much more with the United States than we would actually do with a lot of different European countries,” de Vink said.

Despite close economic and political ties within the EU, the nation states nevertheless maintain their individual autonomies. In 2003, France and the Netherlands rejected a referendum held for establishing a European constitution, de Vink said.

“We are not the United States of Europe’ like you have here in the United States,” de Vink said. “It’s a bunch of sovereign nations that do a lot of things together.”

A strong supporter of the EU and the Eurozone, the Netherlands also conducts autonomous economic activities with the United States. The Netherlands is the third biggest investor and seventh biggest trading partner with the United States, de Vink said.

The close economic ties between the United States and the Netherlands may be attributed to the similarities in the two nations, he said.

“It is part of a cultural thing. I think Americans like to work with the Dutch and vice versa,” de Vink said. “There is the same mentality, the same open mind, a very hands-on approach.”

Kyle Krater, a program officer for the Rockefeller Center, organized the discussion after being contacted by de Vink, who is visiting New Hampshire for the Republican presidential primaries.

“[De Vink’s] willingness to speak candidly on a number of sensitive topics was also appreciated, and in turn, the students in attendance were respectful and informed,” Krater said.

Maryna Marchanka GR’13, a Belarusian who attended the discussion, was interested in American foreign policy toward Europe.

“It is rare that Dartmouth hosts talks on U.S.-EU relations that sparked my interest in the lecture,” Marchanka said. “De Vink did not only address this issue, but also commented on recent developments inside the EU and its relations with Eastern Europe, which was of particular interest to me.”

Mbumbijazo Katjivena ’12 found de Vink’s views on the transparency of the Dutch-U.S. relations particularly interesting, he said.

“The fact that a lot of the economic partnerships seemed to be private and not necessarily accessible to other European nations made me think about how that could potentially be problematic for the EU, since what one nation does kind of affects the rest of the EU,” he said.

The lecture was sponsored by the Rockefeller Center and the Dickey Center for International Understanding.

Meal plans cost roughly the same as other Ivies’

Despite complaints of rising prices under the new SmartChoice plans, Dartmouth students still pay less for food than students at other Ivy League institutions.

Despite student complaints about the cost of the new SmartChoice meal plan, the College’s recently instituted meal plans cost roughly the same amount as those of Dartmouth’s peer institutions, though Dartmouth Dining Services offers fewer dining hall options than most comparable institutions.

Dartmouth currently offers four meal plan options for undergraduate students. The most expensive meal plan is SmartChoice20 at $4,974 a year. The plan includes 20 meal swipes per week and $75 in DBA per term. SmartChoice14, priced at $4,725 per year, includes 14 meals a week and $125 of DBA. SmartChoice5, with five meals a week and $875 of DBA, costs $4,320 per year. The off-campus meal plan, SmartChoiceOC, offers $875 of DBA a term, totaling $2,625 over the course of a year. In addition, extra DBA, which used to roll over from term to term until the end of an academic year, is removed from students’ accounts at the end of each term.

The original set of meal plans included $200 a term of Topside DBA but has since been removed. Instead, students must pay for Topside out of their DA$H accounts or a declining Topside DBA account, which starts at $0 at the beginning of the term and has no limit. The balance is paid at the end of each term.

Freshmen were required to purchase the SmartChoice20 meal plan for the Fall term, but were permitted to switch their plans for Winter term.

In addition to the changes made to last year’s meal plans, the College also changed the hours of several campus dining facilities. This fall, Class of 1953 Commons began closing at 8 p.m. instead of offering late-night dining options until 12:30 a.m. The Courtyard Cafe no longer operates during breakfast hours and begins serving food at 11 a.m.

Additional changes have been made since the beginning of Winter term to both the dining halls’ hours and the food they serve. ’53 Commons’ hours have been extended and it now closes at 8:30 p.m. Hard ice cream has been added and the grill line has been expanded. Late Night Collis, originally operating five days a week from 9:30 p.m. to 12:30 a.m., is now open seven days a week with the same hours. Novack Cafe is now also open seven nights a week.

Some students expressed dissatisfaction with the current dining hours. Joon Ho Baak ’15, a member of the club volleyball team, said his practices usually end too late for him to purchase dinner at ’53 Commons. Baak switched from the SmartChoice20 plan to the SmartChoice5 because he found 20 meal swipes a week to be excessive.

“I switched because of the inflexibility of getting the food I wanted because the meal exchange rates are pretty terrible,” Baak said. “Just about everyone I know switched.”

Juan Nicholls ’15 said the dining hall hours were “strange,” and that he was unhappy that only one meal swipe can be used per meal period. However, he stayed on the SmartChoice20 plan because he felt it was still a more valuable option.

“Even though it’s more expensive, you’re still getting 60 more meals a term than the [SmartChoice14] plan,” Nicholls said. “The difference in DBA isn’t worth the difference in meals.”

None of the other Ivy League schools offer exclusively a la carte dining options, as Dartmouth did this prior academic year, according to their respective websites. Instead, students’ choices come in the form of plans that offer a fixed amount of meals per week, which do not roll over, or plans that allow students to use a fixed amount of meals at any point during the semester.

Among Ivy League schools, Cornell University has the most expensive on-campus meal plan, according to its website. The Golden Bear plan, which costs $6,220 a year for two semesters, allows students unlimited access to all-you-can-eat dining halls during regular hours and $400 of Big Red Bucks, Cornell’s equivalent of DBA. Cornell’s smallest meal plan, the Bear Basic, costs $4,270 a year and allows students to eat seven meals a week at dining halls, with $500 in Big Red Bucks. All of Cornell’s plans include four “bonus meals,” which can be used to purchase food for guests of students, according to the Cornell University Dining website.

Many institutions, like Dartmouth, currently require freshmen to purchase a set meal plan. These meal plans typically cost more than other meal plans offered exclusively to upperclassmen. At Columbia University, freshmen purchase one of two meal plans that differ in the amount of meals per week and dining dollars they offer, but both cost $4,588 a year, according to its website. Upperclassmen can purchase plans varying from $1,908 to $4,200 a year. At Columbia, Dining Dollars, the equivalent of DBA, roll over from year to year until students graduate.

The University of Pennsylvania and Yale University also require freshmen to buy specific meal plans, according to their respective websites. Penn offers its freshmen a choice of three plans with varying amounts of meal swipes. The Eat Any Time plan offers unlimited meal swipes for the dining plan holder, while the Balanced Eating Naturally and Best Food Fit plans offer limited meal swipes that can be used at any point throughout the semester. Each of the three plans cost $4,287 per year and also include Dining Dollar$, which are funds that can be used at retail locations throughout Penn’s campus.

Yale’s freshman plan allows 21 meal swipes a week at all-you-can-eat dining halls, according to its website. It is also the most expensive of the required freshman meal plans, costing $5,500 a year. Yale’s meal plans are the most expensive of the Ivy League institutions students may purchase the freshman meal plan or choose from two other plans, which cost $5,500 and $5,634 a year

Students presented with information about other schools’ meal plan costs said their opinion of the SmartChoice meal systems were not changed.

Sarah Alexander ’14 said that though the College’s meal plan may be cheaper in comparison to other schools, she still felt that it cost too much.

“I had so much money left over last year, like $800,” Alexander said. “I still had around $300 last term. I’m just frustrated by the fact that I’m not using all my money.”

Dartmouth offers students seven dining venues, three of which are traditional dining halls and four others that provide snacks, coffee and sandwiches. This is the smallest number of dining options offered in the Ivy League. Among institutions of similar size such as Williams College and Amherst College with three and two formal dining areas, respectively Dartmouth provides similar services.

Among the Ivy League, the number of dining facilities varies greatly. Cornell has the most, with over 30 locations, ten of which are traditional dining halls; Yale has 15 dining halls; Princeton has six dining halls; Harvard University has 14 dining halls and 13 retail locations; Columbia has 10 dining locations; Penn has four dining halls and five retail locations; and Brown has two dining halls and nine other locations, which vary from cafes to Topside-style “mini-marts,” according to their respective websites.

The new meal plans have proved to be unpopular among students, according to a survey conducted by Student Assembly from late October to early November. The survey was sent out via email to campus on Oct. 23 and was available for students to fill out until Nov. 11, according to an email sent out by the Assembly that accompanied the survey’s results.

About 53.3 percent of the student body, or 2,236 student, of the students who responded to the survey, 45 percent purchased the SmartChoice5 plan, 31 percent purchased the SmartChoice20 plan, 15 percent purchased the SmartChoice14 plan and nine percent purchased the off-campus plan. Of those who responded to the survey, 28 percent were members of the Class of 2015, which indicates that only three percent of survey respondents voluntarily purchased the SmartChoice20 plan.

The new layout of ’53 Commons proved relatively popular 70 percent of students responded that they would rate it a six out of 10 or higher. The median response was a seven out of 10, according to the survey results. The food at ’53 Commons also received positive feedback 69 percent of students rated the food at ’53 Commons a three or four out of five, with five percent giving the food a five out of five.

In contrast, the new meal plans received negative feedback from students 86 percent of students rated the SmartChoice system as a five out of 10 or lower; the median response was a three out of 10. The changed operating hours of ’53 Commons and the Courtyard Cafe were also unpopular, with 69 percent of students responding that the new hours were worse, while only three percent said they were better than previous years.

**This article appeared in print under the title “Meal plans cost less than other Ivies’.”*

Gingrich touts health care policy at DHMC

Former Speaker of the House Newt Gingrich, R-Ga. spoke at Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center on Friday as part of the Health Care Policy Grand Rounds hosted during each election cycle. Addressing an auditorium filled with health care providers, researchers and other DHMC affiliates, Gingrich spoke about his beliefs on decentralizing health care and furthering brain research.

To introduce his health care platform, Gingrich drew an analogy with the history of flight.

“In the turn of the last century, there were two parallel efforts to invent flight in the United States,” he said. “One was by the Smithsonian, which had a $50,000 grant from the Congress. And the other was by two bicycle mechanics in Dayton, Ohio, who as a passion, privately had decided they wanted to learn how to fly.”

Gingrich said the Smithsonian was unsuccessful in its efforts, yet the Wright Brothers two men without advanced degrees or government grants invented what the Smithsonian had failed to.

“Great innovation is decentralized, semi-spontaneous, led by unique people doing unique things,” he said. “Large bureaucratic centralized systems are inherently control-originated and inherently unwilling to take unique risks.”

Gingrich said the bureaucracy surrounding American health care policy would crush innovation and at its best, achieve adequate generalized patient care. He also said broad government recommendations based on statistical data like recent recommendations to bypass select prostate cancer screenings undermine doctors’ capacity to provide personalized care.

“I think it is very dangerous to start taking something as personal as health and start abstracting it into random bureaucratic averages based on statistical analysis,” Gingrich said.

Gingrich said health care must be “reinvented and rethought from the ground up.” He specifically emphasized his support for continued brain science research in hopes of finding cures and developing treatments to minimize autism, Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, and other mental health disorders.

“These are all stunningly expensive problems,” he said. “I am passionate that we take brain science as an opportunity seriously. There is no single investment that would do more to save lives and more to save money than an extraordinary commitment to brain science.”

Following his speech, Gingrich opened the discussion up to questions from the audience. Meg Curtis of Hillsborough, N.H., whose husband died of Alzheimer’s last year, asked Gingrich to elaborate about his views on brain research.

“Five years ago my young husband at age 59 was diagnosed with early onset Alzheimer’s,” she said. “I promised him at that time I would keep him home until the end and that I would not have my voice silenced until we could find a cure.”

Curtis asked Gingrich if he would increase federal support for brain research.

Gingrich said he favored redesigning the current stance on research, taking it “off budget” and creating a public-private partnership to aggressively research cures and methods of postponing the effects of Alzheimer’s and mental health disorders.

“If you had a system designed to maximize the production of new American science and technology and to bring it to market as rapidly as possible, you would literally dominate the world health market with new products and solutions,” Gingrich said. “You have a long-term win-win strategy people would get to be healthier long, they would be less expensive to the taxpayer and you are you are creating more jobs.”

Curtis said she had posed her question to former Gov. Jon Huntsman, R-Utah, and former Gov. Mitt Romney, R-Mass. at forums earlier this week. Both candidates seemed surprised by her question, but Gingrich brought up the issue of brain science before she even asked, she said in an interview with The Dartmouth.

Previously an undecided voter with health care, and specifically support for brain science, as an important concern, Curtis said she was pleased with what Gingrich had to say.

“It was extremely favorable,” she said. “I’m really swinging toward the Gingrich way of thinking.”

Not all members of the audience were equally pleased with Gingrich’s presentation. Peter Merrill, director of information systems at DHMC, questioned Gingrich about his role in the current gridlock in government during the question and answer session, but in an interview with The Dartmouth said he was not swayed by Gingrich’s response.

“I thought it was an incredibly articulate and well-reasoned defense of his actions in response to my characterization of him as responsible for the current gridlock in government,” Merrill said. “It was in no way an answer to my question of how to get past the current gridlock. My personal belief is that he is one of the major people responsible.”

Although not entirely pleased with many of United States President Barack Obama’s decisions regarding protection of personal liberties and the War on Terror, Merrill said he will probably vote for Obama again in the general election.

“I suspect he may be the only choice,” he said. “It will depend on who Republican voters come up with.”

Huntsman spoke at DHMC as part of the Health Care Policy Grand Rounds on Jan. 3.

Student dies on Barcelona trip

Crispin Scott '13 was found dead in Spain, where he was studying on an exchange program affiliated with Portland State University.

Crispin Scott, a member of the Class of 2013, died while studying abroad in Barcelona on a program not affiliated with the College, Dean of the College Charlotte Johnson said in a statement to The Dartmouth.

“We learned of [Scott’s] death this morning and extend our sincere and most regrettable condolences to his family at this time,” Johnson said. “[Scott] will certainly be remembered. Efforts are focused to reach out to those who knew him, his family and certainly other students who were abroad with him in Barcelona.”

Johnson said that Scott was studying abroad on the Academy of Liberal and Beaux-Arts program run by Portland State University, which runs its 10-week Winter term from the beginning of January to the end of March, according to the program’s website.

“[Scott’s] death has devastated all of us involved with the program, and as a parent, I can only begin to imagine how his family must be feeling,” ALBA Director Charles Grant said in an email to The Dartmouth. “All we can do now is offer our deepest sympathy and condolences to them and his friends and fellow students.”

ALBA program staff are currently planning a memorial service in Barcelona in the upcoming week, Grant said.

The specific time and cause of Scott’s death are still unknown, though an investigation is currently ongoing, Johnson said in an interview with The Dartmouth.

“I do not have any information about the specific cause or time of death,” Johnson said. “Barcelona police are investigating as they do for all untimely deaths, and like everyone else, we are waiting for more information.”

Grant confirmed the ongoing investigation in Barcelona and said he knew “frustratingly little” information.

On Friday evening, Scott was at a “large gathering of ALBA students 40 or more at an upscale seafront hotel, which devolved into smaller groups,” Grant said.

Scott was with several friends, all of whom returned to their own apartments except Scott, according to Grant. Scott failed to return to his apartment and did not show up for an ALBA orientation session at noon on Saturday, at which time the police were notified, Grant said.

“I have no idea how they conducted the search, but [Scott’s] body was apparently found in an apartment not one of ours some way from the original hotel location later that day,” he said.

The police would only confirm that “there did not appear to have been any physical violence and he appeared to have died in his sleep,” Grant said.

While Portland State has run the program in Barcelona for 25 years, “there was always a subconscious fear that some terrible event like this might occur,” he said.

Grant said he hopes the lessons from Scott’s death will prevent similar tragedies in the future.

“My hope is that when the full facts of this case are revealed, we will use the lesson to reduce and hopefully eliminate these truly dangerous risks for all of our students,” Grant said. “I am and will always be convinced of the enormous benefits from studying abroad, but we must do more educating to make it safer for every single student.”

Scott, a Seattle native, was a member of Phi Delta Alpha fraternity and the Dartmouth men’s rugby team. Phi Delt served as a gathering place for students on Sunday from 3 to 8 p.m. Undergraduate deans, counselors and clergy were present to provide support, according to a campus-wide email sent by Johnson on Sunday afternoon. Many students gathered to console one another and commemorate Scott’s life at the event.

“We are all deeply saddened by the news,” Phi Delt President Michael Root ’12 said in a statement to The Dartmouth. “Crispin was a great brother and friend to us all and will be greatly missed. Our thoughts and prayers go out to his family.”

Dartmouth is in contact with the ALBA progam and is sending a Dartmouth representative to Barcelona on Monday, Johnson said.

“We are primarily checking in with students and making sure those students are fine,” Johnson said. “We will be certainly extending support to parents and work with authorities with respect to what happened to [Scott].”

The College will offer grief counseling services on Monday afternoon to students on the ALBA program and the Dartmouth Language Study Abroad program in Barcelona, Johnson said. Dick’s House will offer extended hours for students on campus who want to seek counseling.

“We are mobilizing community directors, chaplains and dean staff to create support on a number of different levels in the community,” Johnson said.

Kevin Kennedy ’13, who met Scott at an event for accepted Dartmouth students in Seattle their senior year of high school, spoke of warm memories of his friendship with Scott, whom he said “constantly had a smile on his face.”

“There was constantly a joke to be laughed at when you were with Crispin sometimes it was on him, sometimes it was on you, but the beauty of it was that it couldn’t have mattered less,” Kennedy said. “He, better than anyone else I have ever known, knew how to find comedy in a world where most people are too busy moving forward to sit back and laugh.”

Katie Schade ’13, who attended middle and high school with Scott at University Preparatory Academy in Seattle, said they met in their eighth grade earth sciences class.

Schade described attending her sophomore prom with Scott as “one of her fondest memories.”

“It was maybe not the best because we were so awkward, but it was the start of our friendship in the sense that it is today,” Schade said.

Attending Dartmouth with Scott “was a great adventure for us both,” she said. “We were friends since middle and high school, but going across the country to Dartmouth, we stuck together and were a network for each other.”

Scott was “one of the smartest people I’ve ever met and one of the smartest people in our entire high school,” Schade said.

“He was so genuinely humble about his intelligence and loved to help other people and didn’t make people feel bad about not being as intelligent as he,” Schade said. “In our Calculus 2 class in high school, there were five of us and every day the teacher would give Crispin something to do because he was so far ahead of everyone else.”

In addition to his intelligence, Schade also spoke highly of his easygoing and social personality.

“He wanted to make other people around him feel comfortable, and he always wanted to be the center of the party, and he always was,” Schade said.

Lohse: Instruments of Tyranny

Richard Nixon only got it half right when he wrote during the Reagan years: “At present we occupy a treacherous no man’s land between peace and war, a time of growing fear that our military might has expanded beyond our capacity to control it and our political differences widened beyond our ability to bridge them.”

Nixon’s words were those of a man who had nothing left to lose American presidents seldom have the wherewithal to speak the truth until they have left office. Nixon’s indictment of the vast subterranean power structure of the American military-industrial complex echoes both Dwight Eisenhower’s famous farewell address and the militaristic tenor of our times, but it is only half correct in that the expansion of authoritarianism at the expense of liberty is sadly one of the only issues bridging our partisan divide.

The nature of our Constitutional government has been gradually subverted by both major political parties over the last decade by hitherto unimaginable executive branch privilege, the Patriot Act, extrajudicial killings, secret overseas prisons and other repugnant excesses of an increasingly repressive security state.

Spinning Benjamin Franklin’s famous injunction on its head, our American security state has traded our liberty for its security a security from its own people, a citizenry who has, through the digital information boom, awoken to the inherent plutocratic control mechanisms of constant war and endemic economic stratification. This is all to say that the incremental march toward despotism recently took a great leap when President Obama signed the National Defense Authorization Act of 2012 into law.

The NDAA allows the government to detain citizens indefinitely not just nebulously-defined “enemy combatants” in prisons foreign or domestic, under the mere suspicion of “terrorism.” This law is an apostasy: a wholesale repudiation of a legal system meant to protect all citizens equally, including those suspected of committing crimes even crimes against the state. This law codifies exceptions to our Bill of Rights not just for members of Al-Qaeda but for all Americans.

When a “liberal” president who ran on campaign promises to end illegal rendition and overseas wars expands the surveillance state and military-industrial complex in ways that even Dick Cheney could have only fantasized about in moments of somber reflection while playing violent Xbox games in the Situation Room, we know we are in trouble. Despotism has now bridged the political divide party affiliation is meaningless in a landscape where our two major parties affect a farce of good cop-bad cop, while both in actuality are worse cops, tripping over each other to expand statist autocracy.

Likewise, as innumerable journalists and Occupiers have demonstrated, the organs of our federal government serve only the interests of the economic elite. It is apparent now that the military-industrial complex decried by past presidents as diverse as Washington, Eisenhower, Nixon and Carter has finally reigned supreme. Colorado’s moderate Democratic Senator Mark Udall recently remarked on the NDAA: “These provisions raise serious questions as to who we are as a society and what our Constitution seeks to protect.”

Obama’s signing statement strikes the tone of reluctant dictator, mildly objecting in principle to the bill but rendering it law regardless while promising to never actually use its enumerated powers. As we have seen, once executive power is expanded, it is seldom revoked. And these powers are such that no responsible president should sign them into law not just for the fear of he himself or one of his successors using them, but for the fear of them existing at all.

It is now abundantly clear knowing as we do that the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan were manufactured by falsehoods that the constantly conjured specter of eternal threat abroad has now become, as it historically does, the conjured specter of eternal threat at home. Free citizens acting within their rights have become the threat itself. The main mechanisms of martial law have been put into effect.

The only people who should be detained are our leaders, who have betrayed their constituents by betraying their oath to our Constitution.